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ALL IMPORTANT ESSAYS PAPER FPSC CSS BPS17


ALL VERY IMPORTANT ESSAYS FEDERAL PUBLIC SERVICE COMMISSION COMPETITIVE EXAMINATION FOR POSTS IN BPS-17 UNDER THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT, 2000 GENERAL KNOWLEDGE PAPER-I

Clash of Civilizations (Islam versus West)

Outline:

> Introduction

> Present scenario of bloodshed, prejudices, and misconceptions

> Causes behind this overstated Thesis of Civilizations

> US led war on Terror and its negative implications on the Muslim world

> Islamic Civilization is pluralistic and believes in interfaith harmony

> Suggestions to make this world a Heaven

> conclusion

Harvard Professor Samuel P. Huntington caused intellectual explosion by  publishing his article “Clash of Civilizations” in the American journal‘Foreign Affairs’ in1993. He asserts “Cavitations are the largest aggregates that command human loyalties and account for much of the bloodshed in the recorded human history. Cold war marked a brief departure from it but now old enemies could go to the past time, waging wars against each other…. The biggest threat to the west at present comes from China and Islam.” He argues that now the cold war had ended, future conflicts in the world politics would be less between states and more between civilizations or coalitions of culture. There is now a danger of hot war of religion to succeed the cold war of ideologies, the new trend between America and its allies, on the one hand, and Muslim countries such as Iraq, Iran, Afghanistan, Libya, Sudan, and Somalia, on the other hand. Both American capitalism and Russian Communism were born out of European culture.

Present Gloomy Scenario:

The 9/11 attack was termed as beginning of clash of civilization, when Tony Blair exclaimed as, “They have attacked on our civilization.” President Bush declared war against Afghanistan as Crusades.The question arises whether the significance  of September 11,2001, the attacks on the US, the devastation of Afghanistan, the Israeli onslaught on the Palestinians homeland and Lebanon, the plans to divide Iraq and invade Iran Somalia, and Sudan, all add up to an unfolding conflict between the United States and its closest allies(Israel and UK) on the one hand, and more and more Muslim countries, on the other hand. The tumult caused by   the publication of the caricature of the Holy Prophet in the Norwegian Newspaper. The growing phenomenon of linking fundamentalism to extremism and extremism to Islam and Islam to terrorism sent a shocking weave to Enlightened Muslims.

Causes of Clash of Civilazations:

This thesis was an inspiration for the Jews. They have worked hard to convert their war against Palestine into a US war against Islam, thus have successfully engaged their historic enemies- Islam and Christianity. The humiliation

in crusades by Zangi and Ayubi are still a poignant reminder for the west, also  9/11 attack was labeled as ‘Crusade’ by President Bush. Still the westerns are embracing the religion of Islam, surprisingly 45,000 westerns after 9/11 accepted Islam. Thus Pope Benedict could not keep himself from speaking rough language against Islam and the Holy Prophet. The Muslims have been denied of their legitimate rights in their social(wearing of HIjab), political(execution of Sadam),geographical(Palestine and Kashmir)_ and religious(blasphemous cartoons) and economic(capturing of Middle East oil) freedom

The west perceives that the Muslim world with its huge economic potential, demographic explosion, nuclear capability and a larger scale migration to its countries, may challenge its hegemony as an alternative system. Fear that Islamic wants to overcome the West. On the contrary, the Muslims perceive that the West is determined to uproot the Muslim Civilization.

Clashes of civilization are also wars of images and control of opinions through Media. The world is in the grip of War of Media, whose headlines are like ‘Three Israelis Killed’ but never a headline which says ‘Hundreds of Palestinians feared killed by Israelis.’ Johann Galtung, a distinguished journalist, maintains that media projects violence without analyzing its causes for unresolved issues, portrays one side as ‘Evil’ and the other as ‘Liberator.’ Kevin Doyle quotes the theory of ‘Propaganda Model’ and explains that the modern Media promotes the division within the global village which is enhancing insecurity. The US controlled western media, is blaming Islam and Muslims as terrorists. If some Muslims are terrorists, it does not prove over a billion Muslims are terrorists. Former President CBS News, Richard Salent reveals, “Our job is to give people not what they want, but we decide they ought to have.” Taliban story of women oppression does not generate the positive Islamic images- that Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Turkey had a woman Head of State. That the streets of Muslim cities like Tehran, Cairo, and Riyadh are far safer from muggers and rapists than the streets of New York, and Washington. Some misguided and frustrarted Muslims are equally responsible for creating this chaos in the name of Islam. For their vested interests, they take advantage of poverty stricken and illetrate Muslim yoth in developing them as terrorists.

Hidden Objectives under this Theory:

A clash of culture did occur when President Bush used to Taliban, the Language of ultimatum over surrendering of Usam , “Just hand over Usama Bin Laden and his thugs. There is nothing to talk about.” It shows he was trying to get the Taliban to say NO, so that Bush could embark on his long awaited military action to capture Afghanistan. The threat of weapons of mass destruction from North Korea is more

real than that of Iraq, but till now 6,00,000 Iraqis have been butchered with their President hanged. For ‘Greater Israel’ Hezbollah, Iran and Syria are on the hit list as their culture of ‘Violence’ in the words of Bush, “Put future threats to the security of America.”

Pluralistic Dimensions of Islamic Civilization:

Islam was not spread by sword, as misinterpreted by Pope, the living evidence is Arab Land itselsf where millions of Christian and the jews are practicing their fiath with complete liberty. Ruthless killing of innocent citizens coomited by Napolean, Chengiz khan and observed in the world wars are much greater than by Saddam or any other Muslim Despot.

In the Muslim world, the women are awarded more dignity than in the west, far less prostitution than in the west, no beauty competitions. Sons in the Muslim  world respect their mothers more than sons in the west.There was an ethnic cleansing which displaced thousands of Palestinians to make room for the Jews. An ideology was formed in which some one from the Ukraine who claims to have had   a Jewish ancestors two thousands years ago had more rights under Israel’s Law of Return than a Palestinian who ran away from Israeli borders in 1948.The Warrior  US Presidents:George Washington, soldier turned Head of State, inspires every US President, who wants the experience of ordering at least one military action by American Forces.

Wrong Notions of Huntingtons Thesis:

Richard Nixon has dismissed the theory, “That nightmare scenario would never materialize. The Muslim world is too large and diverse.” The Huntington’s thesis failed to account many features of the Muslim world. It has no large differences with the Christian west unlike Communism. That was why many Muslim countries preferred to align with West during cold war. The Muslim world is in a process of acquiring scientific knowledge following western model of development, there may be political differences but by no means differences of civilization. Clash of Civilization is in fact clash of economic interest.

Suggestion to make this world a Heaven:

The present ongoing clash is not a physical phenomenon and does nor requires use of force, which has proved a big failure, even after using Hi-Tech weapons. Rather it demands intellectual and collective effort by all responsible scholars, Heads of States, Soldiers and Politicians. Inter faith dialogue to create harmony because Islam gives high esteem to all other religions of book and their prophets. True Muslim scholars in collaboration with other Priests, can hold joint Seminars to generate harmony and shed clouds of ignorance and prejudice. The world body UN

Text Box: should fear the dreadful end of League on Nations, so it needs vitality and  firmness to implement its fair decisions, irrespective US influence which has divided the world. Media power can be used for bridging the gulf among biased nations and cultures.. Education system is a basic tool in polishing individuals with qualities of compassion and Humanism.

Finally the world finds engulf amongst fears of hunger, natural disasters, diseases, nuclear holocaust, population explosion and collapse of religious and moral values, it requires joint constructive strategy rather than bloody clashes.

DEVOLUTION                                                          OF                                                        POWER

Dancing around the fire is not the solution to any problem. One should try to see beneath the surface in order to grasp an idea about the basic issue. Deposit a stream of strong words and announcements made by the past rulers of Pakistan, nothing concrete has been done to introduce a proper economy revival plan. Rather the situation has taken a quantum leap for the worse. The problem of centralization of power has been the most crucial issue in Pakistan. The idea of the decentralization that is transfer of power to the provinces and form there to the   Districts,   Tehsil   Councils   and   Union   councils   is   a   welcome   step.

Decentralization of power at the grass roots level leads to better provision of social and civil services, restoration of the real democracy in the country and a more active and beneficial interaction and participation of the masses in all tiers of governance,. Successful District government will play a big role towards the establishment of a truly democratic and lasting political order in the country.

Devolution of power is an internationally tested mode of governance. It will go a long way towards helping the present military regime to achieve its declared goals of strengthening the federation, removing provincial disharmony and restoring National Cohesion. Headway in these critical areas will facilitate the achievements of the goals on the agenda points ensuring law and order, providing speedy justice and     accountability and                         eradicating                          corruption.

The existing political and administrative structure with its highly centralized state power is incapable of providing effective popular governance. The prevailing system strongly resists equitable distribution of power in which the rich protect their own interests. Autocracy and centralized rule practiced by the past rules, both military and civil, has damaged democracy, destroyed National Institutions, and       kept       a       healthy       political       culture       from       developing.

By giving the power to the people, where it actually belongs, the future well being, stability and unity of the nation will be enhanced. The decision to bring the voter’s age down from twenty one to eighteen years has increased the number of voters and has brought youth in the mainstream of national life. Local governments can enable the local monitoring communities to manage their primary social and civic tasks. To make the devolution of power effective, the district governments have to be granted vast financial and administrative powers.

They must have the power to levy and collect revenues. Devolution without enabling the local governments to raise and manage funds from their own resources  is  not  likely  to  enable  the  people  to  run  their  own  affairs.

Since effective lower judiciary is an important part of the system of devolution,

new local judicial institutions have to be created and existing one’s strengthened to provide cheap and immediate justice. Arbitration and conciliatory courts at union council level will also help to avoid expensive litigation whereas according to the present set up the common man has to run to the provincial capital or to Islamabad to obtain justice, which in many other countries, are the responsibility of           local                                                                 authorities.

Effective decentralization of authority is essential to ensure peoples involvement in government from the village to the National level. Only through active participation     of     the     masses     and     strong     and     united     nation.

An accessible infrastructure of quick and better solution will be provided for the day to day problems of the people through the Union Councils. Tehsils, and District government. Decentralization will ensure the provision of better civic and utility services, as they will be controlled by local elected representatives. The people will thus have a far more responsible government,. Social welfare, public works, public transport, education and health services along with law and order will be the responsibility of the local government. They must therefore be granted financial  and  administrative  powers  for  effective  control  and  management.

The genesis of the present situation is that in Pakistan politics has never been based on some specific  philosophy, programme or  principles. It has been in negation of all the ingredients of democracy. It has always been confined to prison or personalities. Ever since partition the only motive of alliances has been for personal gain, power and wealth. Political parties are the personal fiefdom of political leaders; scions of inter related families of Landlords, Pirs, Nawabs, industrialists, business tycoons and Generals. They conspire and intrigue with civil/   military   bureaucracy   to   achieve,   retian   and   perpetuate   power.

Provincial disharmony has arisen out of the neglect and the deprivation of the smaller provinces. The centralization of power has encouraged internal dissension and disharmony. It has weakened the State and aggravated the multi dimensional crises the people face in their daily life. This has resulted in deteriorating political and social fabric of the country. Therefore, decentralization of power will make the government more responsive to the aspiration of the poor as their participation in governance would increase. Till now all the provinces are devoid of effective power and the center has enjoyed power in majority of subjects. Most of these required to be decentralized and restored to the provinces and from thence to the Districts. As there was no system to grant more provincial autonomy so, the local autonomy was always lacking in our country. Hence the process of decentralization was long overdue because autonomy can not be  introduced without             ensuring             and            safeguarding              provincial              autonomy.

The historical background of the issue irradiates that our provincial and national

politics have been helpless victims of the power hogging syndrome. Whoever reaches the throne, sets about misusing all the power that he can lay his lands on, whether, it is covered by the rules or not. However, the local government was degenerated into an instrument for perpetuating the British Raj. Bureaucracy was imposed on the people’s representatives, Deputy commissioners were the pillars of British Empire. Nothing much changed after independence in the year 1947. Pakistan inherited a highly centralized political system. Even the idea of federation envisaged by the successive reconstitutions was negated by the preponderance of the central government’s power in legislative, financial , administrative and political fields. The ruling classes confirm to the colonial traditions    of    governing    the    entire    country    from    a    strong    centre.

Rapidly changing governments with programmes mainly for their perpetuation led to the neglect of development of local government. Suppression of the local government has been a common phenomenon. Bureaucratic dominance led to internal conflicts. Administrators frequently replaced the elected representatives. The power sharing problem has played a vital role in the political scene of the country. The most tragic outcome of this issue is the creation of Bangladesh.

The devolution of power plan introduced by the Chief Executive sounds very well but one major aspect that has not yet built the system is an internal control mechanism. The only political check on the powers of the Nazim is the District Assembly. However, this check comes in the form of a no confidence motion or voting       on       a       decision       making       powers       of       the       Nazim.

Local government should be evolved and developed by the local people according to their own experiences and aspirations. That is what happens in United States and other developed countries. The public representative elected in this way might misuse his power. This hazard can be eliminated in this way that there must be a three or five member standing committee, to be elected by the assembly, to share powers with the Nazim. This committee is usually provided in most elected assemblies in the world. In our country, such a committee is either never elected, or if it is, the chief or the Mayor makes sure that it is not effective. This committee is actually meant to be a political check for the Mayor and the political system. In our case, this is probably the time to write in ironclad clauses to ensure that     it     functions     and     performs     the     role     of     a     watchdog.

In order to ensure that the committee is elected in transparent manner, election of this committee should be handled by the Election Commission simultaneously with the elections of the Nazim. Thus the Nazim and the assembly will know form the very beginning that the committee has to be taken seriously and that it will be the supreme decision taking body. Experience has shown that the committees are less            vulnerable  to                      corruption                  than            individuals.

Another major issue is the exact extent of power to be exercised by the civil servants and the elected representatives at the district level. It is not enough to say that the District officers will be subordinate to the district Nazim. Since these officers shall be appointed by the provincial government, they will continue to report in some matters and some ways to the provincial governments. For instance, a scheme that is costlier than a prescribed amount may be required to be cleared by a higher authority in this case the district officer will have to send it to the provincial government. In such cases, exact powers for each department and     each    layer     of     the    hierarchy     will     have    to    be     defined.

Essentially it boils down to the distribution of powers between the provincial government and the district for the government functionaries we are talking about are really the functionaries of the provincial governments. However, the method and extent of control over the provincial vivil servants by the district and provincial governments will be crucial to the success of the devolution plan.

If the district representative is made all powerful, he might begin to misuse his authority over the civil servants. Similarly, if the civil servant knows that the district representative has negligible control over him, the devolution exercise may    prove   of                      not                   much         democratic worth.

It is therefore, necessary to decide the issue with great carte. An extensive exercise is required before the question of powers and their sharing can be decided. We must firs decide the quantum of work and the exact amount of funds that will be placed at the disposal of the district governments. At the same time, we need to decide exactly how the files would move in the district government hierarchy. Who will sanction a scheme, which will prepare it and who will check it before it is approved. The answers of these questions will determine the level of officers       required       in       different       positions       in       the       district.

In some departments, it may not be necessary to have senior officers. In these cases, like planning and finance, it may be necessary to have at least a couple of senior officers to scrutinize a project or other work before being put up to the Nazim or the Assembly. Such officers, although subordinate to the Nazim will have to be under some form of indirect control of the chief secretary and the provincial government so that decisions on important matters are subject to some supervision         at                                   a      higher                                                level.

So, conceived in this way that the concept is workable and is already working in the advanced and highly developed countries. In our country illiteracy may prove a major impediment in this conceptual change. In developed countries the literacy rate is high and temperament is tolerant. A number of bottlenecks are likely to doom the envisaged devolution of power at the grass roots level to failure. This in turn may have serious implications for the country as a whole and for the army in

Text Box: particular. Conceptually it is not a bad idea. But it can be analysed that this hen is not likely to lay the golden egg, unless the present set of government continues for another minimum of ten years. This is because the seed being sown now has yet to sprout, grow into an adult plant, bear the fruit and than the quality, taste and flavor of this fruit is to be monitored for a few years to establish its palatability. If meanwhile the gardener changes, the next one may even uproot that plant finding it not to his taste.

Does Pakistani society regard woman as an angel in house or source of all evil?

OUTLINE

1.Introduction:

Woman is regarded as an angel in Pakistani society in house.

  • Historical Perspective:

a-Arabs regard for woman before Islam-Islam light for woman

  • Islamic regard for woman:

a-Mother-Paradise under her feet. b-Daughter-Bless for her father.

  • Sister-a great helper.
  • Wife-Companion of her husband’s life.
  • Woman in Pakistani society:

a-As mother b-As daughter c-As sister

d-As wife

  • Role and duties of woman in Pakistani society:
  1. As mother-Awakes nights sleepless for her baby.
    1. As daughter-Cares for respect of her father and herself and has great obedience. c-As sister-helps in education and other activities.

d-As wife serves husband.

  • Consideration for woman as source of all evil due to misconceptions and misunderstandings:

a-Karokari-because of self interests, b-Sexual harassments-to fulfill ill will.

7.Conclusion

Yes, Pakistani society regard woman as angel in house because Pakistani society is based on the Islamic ideology and Islam is a religion of peace and regard for rights of all human beings. Before Islam, the Arabs deprived woman from the rights and humiliate her and there was regard for woman as source of all evil. Islamic education converted the people from animals into humans. Islam gives full rights to woman according to the shariah.

Pakistan had got independence on the Islamic basis. In Islam women are regarded as angels in house in the shape of mother, daughter, sister and wife. The roles

and dutieswhich are performed by woman in Pakistani society confer woman more than angels. Woman is also considered as source of all evils in some areas of Pakistani but due to misconceptions and misunderstandings. Thus, Pakistani society regard woman as an angel in house.

Islam has been playing vital role since beginning for the awareness of the people. Before, Islam the Arabs used to humiliate woman by depriving them from their rights in property or society. They were buried alive. Such type of injustices and immoral activities vanished from those people who accepted Islam. Islam is blessing for the woman rights.

Islamic shariah supports woman rights in economic, social and religious aspects of life.Woman has been given 1/8 of the property as mother.The respect for a woman

is considered in Islamic society in the eyes of father,brother,husband,etc.The religious education is necessary for woman to be given.Islamic shariah is freedom for woman from evils of society.

Pakistan had got independence on the ground of Islam. Woman has same trainings and learnings of Islamic society as Islam recommends. Woman has also been recognized with the same status as she has in heavens. Woman as a mother has paradise under her feet. As a daughter, she is blessing for her father. A sister for her brother is great helper. As a wife, companions of her husband’s life.Such kind of regards for woman in Pakistani society are greatest of all other worldly societies.

Woman plays vital role and duties in Pakistani society in house which makes her above the angelic regard. Woman as a mother sacrifices all her nights and days when she is

blessed a baby by Allah. What a great duty and role this is! As a daughter, a woman serves her father and takes care of her respect and obeys all the decisions of her father for his pleasure. A sister in Pakistani society is a great helper for her brothers. She plays games with brothers and helps in other activities, like, education. The above roles

and duties make a woman more than angels in Pakistani society in house.

Woman is considered a source of all evil in some areas of Pakistan but this regard is based on the misconceptions and misunderstandings created by the evil nature of man. The activity of KaroKari is against law. In this woman is used to victimize a man because in KaroKari, both the man and woman are killed.The illiterate people do this activity to fulfill their financial, social or political purposes. Another, problem is sexual harassment for a woman. In the offices or organizations where she works,the people of ill will for their need of sex,blame a woman to blackmail her.For this type of misconceptions woman in Pakistani society can not be regarded as source of all evil.

In simple words, Pakistani society regard woman as an angel in house because it is an Islamic society. Analysis of historical perspective and Islamic light favors Islam as the best for woman. The status, role and duties of woman played in house in Pakistani society prove woman more than angelic regard. There are some misconceptions in some territories of Pakistani society which are baseless to regard woman as source of all evil.

Woman is regarded as angel in house in Pakistani society.

ECONOMICS                                  CRISIS                                  OF                                 PAKISTAN

Dancing around the fire is not the solution to any problem. One should try to see beneath the surface in order to grasp an idea about the basic issue. Deposit a stream of strong words and announcements made by the past rulers of Pakistan, nothing concrete has been done to introduce a proper economy revival plan. Rather    the    situation    has    taken    a    quantum    leap    for    the    worse.

At present the sorry state of the economy, tops the problems facing the country. Seeing the horrible economic distress, some still suggest restoring to the begging bowl and further subjugation of donor agencies as the only solution to it. Such an approach can not provide a way out; it aggravates the situation and amount to commit suicide. Therefore, the present leadership has realized that there is not option    but      to reshape the economic  strategy                         altogether.

The economy of Pakistan has fallen up to this extent that it requires serious attention and endeavor to revive its  state.  The  revival  of economymeans  to bring the   economy on    track   whereby   country   becomes   self   sufficient and economy self  sustained  to  meet  its  internal  demands  and  fulfill foreign obligations. Sustained economy provides a balance in trade, potential of paying back foreign loans and gradual growth in gross domestic and national product. Rise in foreign exchange reserves, minimum inflation rate, strong local currency are a few indicators of a sustainedeconomy whereas better social indicators                                     reflect                  its                             civic     effects.

Developed economies are movers, developing economies are the followers and the underdeveloped economies have no say in the scheme of things. All economic conditions are the certain result of policies. No economy can itself produce positive results. It is the people and their actions which steer the effects. The economy of Pakistan was not doomed for disaster. It has become the victim of eccentric policies of our past rulers. It has been mismanaged up to this extent that the country has virtually become bankrupt and made to dance on the tunes of donor    agencies    as    Pakistan    has    bartered    its    freedom    with    them.

For the last thirteen years there has been no noticeable addition to basic industries and the economic infrastructure of the country. Instead the number of sick industrial units increases each year. The public sector is shrinking and suffering losses. Although agriculture has helped the nation to survive but the

sector itself is faced with crises. In regard to oil, retrogression has set in after a good progress.After attaining one third self sufficiency in the country’s oil requirements, advancing steps have been retracted and the annual import of oil has increased. Exports could not be enhanced despite repeated devaluation of the rupee.

External debt are touching new heights and the irony is that new loans are obtained        simply       to      pay       back       a      portion       of       the       earlier       loans.

According to the genesis of the present situation the deterioration in economic activity is mainly caused by weak performance of large scale industry, erratic behavior of agriculture, decline in real investment, macro economic instability that includes large fiscal deficit, large bank barrowing, using interest payments on domestic    debts    double    digit    inflation    and    personal    aggrandizement.

The economic situation of Pakistan at the time of independence was also very bleak but it improved over the years. Its economic policies were exemplary and countries like Korea had learned the tricks of economics from Pakistan in 60’s, while Pakistan revived meager financial resources at the time of independence, it was deprived of Kashmir. Ever since, the Kashmir issue has been haunting Pakistan for which Pakistan has fought several wars with India and each war had its price paid by Pakistan. It had to maintain a large armed forces causing huge burden on economy.

Agriculture has always been neglected. Feudalism is in vogue even today and about six thousand families posses forty percent of the total cultivable land. There is no retrieval policy in regard to the agricultural inputs. The cost of seed is four times higher than its cost of production. Irrigation system is also upset. Per acre productivity of East Punjab and Haryana is four times higher than that of West Punjab and Sindh. The level of land and human efforts are the same but the difference in policies, facilities and other factors account for the disparity. Pakistan may become self sufficient in agriculture within two to three years but at present twenty percent of total imports comprise food cereals. On the one hand, there is the common cultivator who finds it difficult to meet his expenses, on the other, there is a particular class that not only rolls in wealth but also upholds the oppressive                                     and                                   unjust                                    system.

As we are very heavily dependent on borrowing to meet the resource gap, our

major donor International  Monetary Fund insists upon narrowing the revenue expenditure gap to under five percent of the gross domestic product. Since other lenders follow the policies of International Monetary Fund, Pakistan has no choice but to enhance its taxes and revenues. These foreign lenders and donors also demand that we reduce taxes on international trade which means the reduction in the custom duties which has always been the main source of our revenues. This puts further pressure on the other taxes to make up for the loss caused by the reduction                                  in   the   custom                                           receipts. Prepare                                                                                                                          GMAT

The real issue of our economy is how to achieve higher productively, and to strengthen and develop the infrastructure. For this purpose the foremost need is to restore the confidence of our businessmen, cultivators and industrials to engage them in product processes. In the past, various Government of Pakistan have made some efforts to build up infrastructure and productive potential of the economy, through the process of many plans which was the beginning to prepare for future advancement. It was started by launching a six year Development Program in in 1951. The plan was suspended two years before its completion due to the repercussions of the Korean war. Besides this plan, five other five years development plans were drawn up. These efforts did not prove successful due to economic,  social                 cultural      and                                 administrative                               obstacles.

As majority of the people in Pakistan are poor and backward, they have always been preoccupied mainly in meeting the basic needs. They live in unhygienic conditions. Electricity is a luxury for them. Health services havebeen thinly spread in the country. Floods, drought or diseases affect people and the livestock. The combination of malnutrition, illiteracy, diseases, high birth rate, unemployment and low income has closed the avenues of escape from serious economic crises. The most unfortunate aspect of these serious economic crises and pathetic state of affairs is not because of the lack of natural resources but due to inefficient use of                       the                   key  factors of                        production.

The socio cultural attitude of  the people is also an obstacle in the way of economic development of Pakistan. More than 50 % people are illiterate. They are ignorant of what is happening in their own country and the world at large. The majority of the people are extravagant. Pakistan, in fact, has a consumption oriented society. The native culture and are generally not receptive to new foreign methods of production. The caste system functioning mostly in terms of

occupations  like  tailoring,  carpentry,  jewelry  etc.  restrict  occupational  and geographical                                                                                                                      mobility.

For accelerating the rate of economic development, there should be political stability in the country. If there is a change in the government set up due to election, or of dictatorship, the planning projects initiated by the previous government should not be altered or given up altogether. The planning machinery and all others involved in administration should be loyal to the country. They should be competent and honest in the performance of the duties assigned to them. In Pakistan, since its inception, there have been rapid changes of governments. Each government which came in power condemned the planning work done by the previous governments. They introduced their own plans, formulated their own strategies of development and left the chain without achieving the targets of their plans. A history of planning shows that with the exception of fifth five year plan, all other plans have failed to achieve their objects    and                               have                proved              mere                     rigmaroles.

Now the time has come to adopt some practical means to set aside the barriers to economic development. It is a big challenge to the planners. According to the above mentioned circumstances the following suggestions can be recommended in order       to       raise       the       economic       development       of       Pakistan:

Export Promotion Bureau and Embassies/ High commissions abroad should explore markets for Pakistan’s products through trade shows, business delegations and international advertising. Moreover the export base should be broadened by exporting software handicrafts, fresh fruits, vegetables, fish, livestock and flowers etc. Suitable arrangements for processing or packaging of fish, fruits and vegetables      should           be                                                        made.

In order to counter the huge debt a “debt management committee” comprising Ministers of Commerce and Finance, Chairman Privatization Commission and Governor Sate Bank of Pakistan should be formed. This committee will develop debt retirement instruments independently having power to implement them in letter and spirit. The committee should draft two separate policies for short term and                                           long   term                                               debts.

The difference of US Dollar and Pakistani rupee in official and open market rats should  be  kept  minimum  and  confidence  of  the  overseas  Pakistanis  may  be

restored which was shaken after freezing of foreign currency accounts in May 1998. Steps may be taken to attract investment from overseas Pakistanis and international                                                                                                                                          investors.

New dams should be constructed to increase availability of water for irrigation purposes, as irrigation water has a vital importance for better agricultural production. The quantity and quality of irrigation water should be improved through      desalting      and      other      water      conservation      techniques.

The of electricity for agriculture purpose should be lowered to ensure at least 40

%        share         of         agriculture          sector         in        consumption           of         power.

The health facilities provided by private and autonomous hospitals are not within the reach of the poor. The government should discourage commercialization of health and ensure availability of adequate health facilities to all segments of society      at                                                 reasonable                      rates.

In the field of education a new policy broadly aiming at increasing literacy rate by universalizing basic education, enforcing compulsory primary education encouraging private investment and increase in total expenditure on education up to  4  per  cent  of  gross  national  product  is  required  to  be  implemented.

The construction of deep sea port at Gawadar and its connection to the rest of the country should be taken up at the earliest to facilitate exports from Balochistan to provide transit for trade of Central Asian States and to get suitable share in international  trade,  making  use  of  ideal  geographical  location  of  Gawadar.

Another important recommendation is regarding information technology policy. This policy mainly emphasized on human resource development and providing infrastructure,   should   be   announced   and   implemented   at   the   earliest.

So, conceived in this way, although a critical look at Pakistan’s economy, presents a gloomy picture. The above mentioned measures are hoped to stabilize the ship. Today not only the country is burdened with heavy debt, it has also reached a stage where it can not simply move forward. Growth is stagnant. All other indicators too, look quite disappointing. Exports are not satisfactory and revenue from taxation is not sufficient. Unemployment is rapidly increasing. The overall scenario presents a dismal situation. This could be seen from the fact that many

Text Box: times a default situation emerged and it had to be faced by making  great sacrifices of national sovereignty and in addition a further rise  on the debt servicing	front.

In spite of al these cataclysmic facts, one may hope that with newly introduced economy revival plan, the time will be changed and the economic development rate will be enhanced. Now the time has come that if we want Pakistan to rise up to that extent where the prosperity, integrity, solidarity and economic stability will be all around, (then) every Pakistani will have to work as far as dedication in him lies. By working with whole concentration and conviction we may achieve that much a strong Pakistan dreamt by Quaid-e-Azam, and by working this way that day will not far away when Pakistan will bear the palm and it will show its mettle to rest of the world.

Education in Pakistan

“Education is the third eye of a man”

Education is only the weapon by which one can fight and conquer the battle of life. The education has been a very essential part of the different civilization of the world in historical perspectives. In olden times, cave men had no ideas regarding communicating themselves with one another; the first step was taken in this regard was the formation of language, and it had become the very inceptive source of communication in the earliest history of mankind. They came to know that they had already been bestowed upon a tongue as a source of communication by the Allah Almighty, and now, it was their emphatic job to be civilized and moral etiquettes were required to be shaped.

Then, the early sages made a format of alphabets and thoroughly worked on philology. Thus, gradually grammar was made up, in which, different bifurcations were made; as, man could easily operate the language as a source of communication.

Since then, the world has witnessed the outflow of knowledge that has crossed the boundaries of the different regions and made a world like a global village in recent times, all it was done by the untiring efforts of mankind that has been imparting valuable contributions in different walks of life especially ‘EDUCATION’.

Here, it is necessary to focus on the system of education in Pakistan; and how long this department has been a victim of negligence by the people from different strata of our society and it will be observed, being an individual, who is responsible for the downfall of education in the country.

Before independence, in 1875, a Primary School was established at Ghazipur, (India) by Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, later a High School was established at Aligarh by the same mighty man. But through out India, Muslims were denigrated and the basic needs of life were denied to them by the English. Keeping this in view, Sir, Syed Ahmed Khan aimed at to open a college for the Muslims of India so that they may be able to get the best in higher education. In 1876, Mohammadan Anglo College was established at Aligarh as to meet the demand of education of Muslims of India.

The college was affiliated to the Culcuta University; degrees were conferred upon the graduates by Culcuta University for about 43 years, and in 1919, the colleges was upgraded upto a university level and renamed as ‘Aligarh University’. The university produced thousand of graduates who spread throughout India and started to champion the cause of un-educated and fought for the freedom for a separate homeland.

The Muslims of India, of course, were backward in education than their Hindu counterparts. The Muslim could not follow the way that was directed by the English and the Hindus, as, it was against their religion. The poor type of education made the Muslims unable to get good jobs in English offices; hence, they remained out of politics for they had the scarcity of consciousness. This came to them through the light of education and they went successful in getting the freedom

of Pakistan.

Standard of Education in Pakistan:

In Pakistan, unfortunately the people have been introduced the double standard of education. The one, which prevails through out the country is related to public sector and the other is an out come of private investors.

Let us examine that how far the public sector has fulfilled the requirement of the people of Pakistan by providing them in education. The country had got independence 58 years ago, since then, the contribution imparted by this sector is a little bit worth to be mentioned. The result produced by the sector is very poor and the quantity has outdone quality as far as the contribution and creation is concerned. The education system in Pakistan faced enormous problems after independence. A little attention was paid in this respect. The education has remained an orphan child in our society by facing double standard and has created an atmosphere of frustration among the young ones.

Government has established schools, colleges and universities throughout the country that have been imparting education in different respects and studies of life. The students from these departments are wandering due to lack of opportunities. Everywhere they are denied services because they bear a label of government academies. Now one can imagine that why the government system of education is being neglected throughout the country and why the establishment has allowed private sector with its tails up to introduce another standard of education.

Parents are scared about their children and they even do not allow their children to be admitted in public sector school, they prefer their child to get education in private sector as, it suits them more. This does not mean that public sector schools are not producing the cream of the future, most of our genius and sages who are imparting their valuable services, are out come of public sector schools. The only submitted reason by their parents is lack of management in public sector schools. The well management is offered at private schools.

The relation between teacher and student is sacred. Children are taught social and moral etiquettes with more comfort at private schools, the behaviour of teachers is quite frank and the student can come in direct contact to their teachers. On some scale, this is true that contact between learner and learned lacks in public sectors but the thing they are learning must be the same for both sectors, I mean the curricula. The Curriculum Board has been established but it has allowed private sector to run their own syllabus. Now, the degrees are same but the scope of knowledge got by the two is too different to be compared. Here, students face many complications by studying under different curricula. This has created a big rift between the two sectors.

Causes of Downfall:

There are enormous causes for the downfall of education in Pakistan which are discussed under different sub-headings.

Economical Negligence:

Since its inception, Pakistan has remained a weak economy of the world for it has got nothing in its just assets that were aggressively snatched by India. The conflict between the two countries over Kashmir issue has hardly allowed the government to consider and allocate funds in budget for other sectors, the education is not an exception in this regard. Still, only 2% of GDP is allocated for the welfare of education, which is quite inappropriate to meet the demands of education. And it is worth to note that this allocation budget is too not spent for educational purposes, the whole money is taken away by using unfair means by the concerned officials. All these funds are not given through a proper channel so that a false audit report is submitted that the utilization of funds has been spent on requisite purposes.

Rapid growth in poverty:

According to 2002 Economic Survey of United Nations, “Most of the inhabitants of Pakistan are poor and 40% of them live under poverty line, about 70% of its population dwells in villages. About 300,000, young ones are jobless. They have no access to good education”. The reports shows that how much difficulties and troubles have been faced by this poor and suppressed class of the country. Their main occupation is agriculture and its yearly out put cannot meet their daily and basic needs of life. It is worth to note that only 1% landlords hold almost 95% of lands in Pakistan. This unjust division of land further creates economical problems not only for the poor but also the government does not get the lion’s share in this respect.

Political Negligence:

“If you want to destroy the future of any nation, no need to wage war with them; defunct their education, they will remain no more live on the map of the world.”

No politician has paid attention in improving the standard of education so far, as far as the question of history of development of education in Pakistan is concerned. In case of Sindh, in early 1970s, lingual riots took place and a new cancer of copy culture was introduced and boosted up by politicians to prevail among the people. No official steps were taken in curbing this fatal disease. Now, the result is that throughout the country Sindhi students are understood the out come of copy culture and basic rights in every walk of life are denied to them, because however, they may be genius and creators but the fact remained that they lack in management and unable move the economy of the country just because they bear a title of COPY CULTURE. It was a political conspiracy based on totally bias. Being a Sindhi, I do not favour Sindhis that they are not given a proper share in different walks of life, whatever is happening to them is the only out come of wrong and misled policies which have been blindly followed up by them. Patriotism is the very hinge for all virtues, living in the same country every one at first is Pakistani then Sindhi, Punjabee, Balochee and or Pathan, respectively. So, now it is our turn to turn a new leaf and pace with our other provincial brothers to improve the management of our beloved country Pakistan, believing in “united we stand, divided we fall”. Education has become a question of survival for us; less developed man cannot bring the change in improving the skills that are vital for the uplift of the education.

Irrelevant Induction of Staff:

It has been a dilemma of our educational system that it has embodied irrelevancy in inducting its

staff; broadly speaking, I personally have come across enormous experiences in my minute observation, as it has been generally observed that if a person has some specialization in some particular subject but he seems to be teaching something else. More openly, if some one has got his/her masters in English Literature, he seems to be teaching Mathematics to his/her students. The fact remains that students cannot learn first hand and ground information regarding their subjects. Nepotism is kept on priority while inducting staff, the induction of staff on quota system has made impotent the working format of the education system, ministers choose their relatives for induction without thinking that either they could serve better or will create complications for others.

Misconception of Purpose:

It is also a dreadful fact that today’s young ones have changed their motives pertaining to acquiring education. Actually, “the education should be for the purpose of getting education” as it has been wisely said; but, we have changed the slogan, “education should be for the purpose of getting jobs”. If, we keep on remaining this theory in mind then we will be digressed from our way and education will be out of our reach. By getting education we come to the ways that how we could be able to lead our lives in the best and a possible way.

Unemployment:

Unemployment is on full swing throughout the country. Country has been facing huge economical setbacks since its independence. The poor economy of the country cannot meet at once the demand of employment of the countrymen at once. On the one hand the disappointed youth, keeping their degrees in hand, wander the whole day in search of job but ‘No-Vacancy’ sign boards inflate their disappointment on the other. This situation creates negative creation of thoughts in their minds; concluding, they come out as dacoits to waylay and let their names to be enlisted in criminal list; and society faces much more troubles through this kind of misshapenness.

Remedies:

Every one of us takes things differently, so there is a room for different suggestions. All of us should aim at to abreast and pace ahead to take the task of improving the education system in a systematic way by implementation different programmes. Awareness should be created amongst un-aware fellows, the importance of education must be expounded in real terms but in an easy way, different literacy programmes should be commenced throughout the country in order to provide assistance pertaining the impediments faced by the poor. Government should take an active eye and spend much more money for the improvement of primary, secondary and higher education. More schools, colleges and universities, medical and engineering colleges are needed to be opened. Special attention must be paid on the development of scientific and technical education so that the settled trend of people in getting academic education may be diverted to the technical education. Subject relevancy must be paid in mind while induction of staff for the concerned posts. Politics must eliminated from education department. Student should pay attention much more on their studies than chalking walls in propagation of different leaders, by doing so they are just wasting their time; nothing can be got by nefarious means. Honesty of purpose and quality in work should be our motives. Every one of us (parents, students, teachers and the supreme government) should root out the copy culture from top to bottom from educational system that has been eating away the fresh brains of our youth for the times

Text Box: unknown. The education must be got for the purpose of education not for getting jobs. Text books must be updated with current topics and rapidly changing of the scenario of the world must be given in the textual books. These suggestions are not enough but whatever has come in my mind I have honestly jotted down; there is a room for suggestions as already has been mentioned. In the last but not the least let us work together for bringing revolutionary changes for the effective Afunction of educational system in the country. Let us pray to Allah Almighty may He enable us to bring and get our desired results by putting our entire efforts in this respect.

1. INTRODUCTION

Throughout the world electricity is the most widely used and desirable form of energy. It is a basic requirement for economic development and for an adequate standard of living. As a country’s population grows and its economy expands its demand for electrical energy multiplies. If this demand is not met adequately a shortage in supply occurs. This  shortage can assume crisis proportions.

Pakistan has been facing an unprecedented energy crisis since the last several years. The problem becomes severe during the summers. Large numbers of users have to be disconnected from the energy supply system to prevent overloading the generating stations (load shedding). On occasions the urban dwellers had to suffer load shedding of 8-10 hours everyday. During the same time rural consumers suffered it for up to 20 hours at a stretch.

Almost two years ago the Chairman Water and Power Authority (WAPDA) admitted that his organization could not meet the current demand for electricity. It is surprising such a senior person took so long to discover this problem. The government talked about Pakistan’s supposedly booming economy but failed to understand the need for meeting the energy needs of the boom. General Musharraf (R) (ex-President) after becoming Chief Executive used to talk about building dams especially Kalabagh Dam.Very few power plants have since been set up. The present energy crisis is totally due to lack of forecasting and planning.

Any power system has 3 major parts:

Text Box: A careful examination clearly indicates that although Pakistan’s installed generating capacity will increase, the shortfall will continue to exist [Federal Bureau of Statistics 1998]. The government must take steps to overcome this situation.

3.1. Short term solution
3.1.1 Line losses control

The methodology that will provide immediate relief is the conservation and judicious use of whatever little energy is being produced in the country. The current losses in the system are 24% of the total power generated. These include losses incurred during transmission and distribution as well as due to theft. Wasteful consumption such as businesses remaining open till late at night and unnecessarily brightly lit also contribute to losses. By reducing these to 10 % we can save up to 300 MW of energy. The government should enforce shutting down businesses and forbidding excessive and unnecessary lighting during late hours. Zoning should be enforced in cities. Market zones can have their power switched off (load shedding) at scheduled hours. As a benefit of service WAPDA employees are allowed free use of electrical energy for their domestic use. This facility has been grossly misused [Federal Bureau of Statistics 2002]. It is recommended every WAPDA household be given a raise in salary and the free electricity facility be withdrawn.
Text Box: 3.1.2 Improving Power generating capacity


It is an unfortunate fact that WAPDA and IPPs thermal power plants are running at an average plant factor of about 50 percent. This means they are producing only 50% of their installed capacity. They are not being used to deliver their full power. Internationally it is quite usual to have thermal power plants operating at 75 to 80 percent plant factor.
Operating the power stations at higher plant factors demands better maintenance procedures there. It is felt that operating the plants at a higher plant factor will cause them to deliver 20 to 30 %more energy to the system. This will alleviate the present shortage to a significant extent. Improving the power plant factor of the existing plant is far more economical then setting up new power plants.

3.2 Medium Term solutions

The policy makers of Pakistan talk about making dams and setting up nuclear power plants but do not understand the importance and benefits of alternate energy (renewable source of energy) sources such as solar, windmill energy, etc. These are cheap and quick methods for producing electricity. Pakistan is very blessed because abundant solar energy is available. Similarly wind energy is readily available in the coastal areas and throughout the winter months in Baluchistan. These energy sources if tapped can be of great help in reducing the current demand supply gap.
Text Box: America, Canada and China have invested large sums of money into research and development in order to obtain maximum energy from wind. Wind power is now the fastest-growing energy source worldwide [US Department of Energy 2002]. Total worldwide production of electrical energy from wind is around 30000MW. Germany, with over 12,000 megawatts of wind power at the end of 2002, leads the world in generating capacity. Spain and the United States, at 4,800 and 4,700 megawatts, are second and third. Many predict that, with the development of more efficient wind turbines, wind energy will provide an increasingly large proportion of electrical production in the U.S. Tiny Denmark is fourth with 2,900 megawatts, and India is fifth with 1,700 megawatts.

Although a score of countries now generate electricity from wind, a second wave of major players is coming onto the field, including the United Kingdom, France, Italy, Brazil, and China. However, land clearing for vast "wind farms" may cause concern to environmentalists.
Text Box: 3.2.2 Solar Energy


Pakistan has high potential of renewable energy sources. A very large part of the rural population does not have the facility of electricity because they are either too remote or it is found too expensive to connect their villages to the national grid station. Pakistan being in the sunny belt is ideally located to take advantage of solar energy. This energy sources is widely distributed and abundantly available in the country. During last 15 years Pakistan has shown quite encouraging progress in the use of photovoltaic cells. Currently electrical power derived from solar energy is being used is being used in some public parks. These include Khalid bin Waleed Park in Peshawar and the Race Course Park in Rawalpindi. The Public Health department has installed solar water pump for drinking purposes in some parts of the country. Both public and private sector are playing their role in up grading of photovoltaic system in the country. If this technology is used in large scale commercial production of electricity the problem of energy shortage can be substantially reduced.

3.3. Long term solution
Text Box: 3.3.1 Coal Potential in Pakistan


Pakistan has the 5th largest coal reserve in the World, amounting to approximately
185.175 billion tones. Thar has largest reserve in the country that is approximately 75.5 billion tones. Pakistan can generate more than 100,000 MW of electricity for next 30 years if it uses all coal available to it. At present Pakistan generates only 0.79% of its total electricity from coal [WAPDA Annual report 2007-08]. Coal contributes approximately 39% of the total global primary energy demand. Share of coal in total electricity produced in different countries is
Text Box: PAKISTAN 0.79%
USA 56%

3.3.2 Hydro-electric power potential

Pakistan has a huge potential to produce electric power from hydro-electric power plants. In table 5 presents a view of electric power generation with power plants whose  feasibility study has been completed or is under process. Construction of all these plants gives almost 55,000 MW. This easily meets the electrical energy requirement of Pakistan for next 20-25 years.

From the table 4, 5 we can see that hydro-electric power has a great potential. Some details of these projects are given in table 4,5.These plants can give low cost electricity. As they are run of river plants, they can be easily installed with minimum cost and in short time.

Conclusion

The policy makers of Pakistan do talk about making dams and setting up nuclear power plants but do not understand the importance and benefits of alternate energy (renewable source of energy) sources such as solar, windmill Tidal, Wave, and Geothermal energy, etc. They are cheap and quick methods for producing electricity. Pakistan is a very blessed country because solar energy is available in most cities all year round. Similarly wind energy is readily available in the coastal areas and in interior Baluchistan during winter. These energy sources if tapped can be of great help in reducing the current demand supply gap. The possibility of using coal and hydro-electric run of river plants must also be considered seriously for the long term.

ETHNIC CRISIS IN PAKISTAN

Dancing around the first is not the solution to any problem. One should try t see beneath the surface in order to grasp an idea about the basic issue .Despite a stream of strong words and announcements and by the government ,various non-governmental organizations and political institutions, nothing has been done successfully in order eliminate the either crises in Pakistan .Rather the situation has taken quantum leap for the                           worse                                                                       .

The struggle for Pakistan was a unique historical experience with few parallels in the annals of history .It transcended ethnic ,linguistic, cultural and regional differences and coalesced into a powerful movement culminating in the creation of an independent homeland for the Muslims of the sub-continent. It even defied the geographic compulsions. In essence, it was an experience of a deep Muslim consciousness which both inspiring and invigorating. However ,Pakistan after its creation was, indeed ,and ethnically           plural                                                           society.

Pakistan ,these days is passing through a crucial era of multifarious ethnic problems; multi-lingual and regional; problems etc. The province of the Punjabi has three distinct ethno-linguistic groups i.e . Punjabi ,Potohari and Saraiki speaking .Of late ,there has been a nascent rise of Saraiki consciousness with a demand for a separate Saraiki Province comprising of Saraiki speaking areas .In Baluchistan the Baluch , Brohi and Pakhtoons are dominated ethnoligual groups. The wide spread nationalist consciousness of Balchusitan has cut across the tribal divisions. In the North-Western Province of Pakistan ,apart from Pushtu,Hindku and Saraiki are also spoken in some parts of this province .The Pustoons as an ethnic group are integrating with the economic life of the rest of the country .The issue of Kalabagh Dam has arisen out of the same ethnic issue and provincial disharmony of Pakistan in the province. Though the proposed dam may play the role of key factor in the prosperity of the country and may breath a new life in the agricultural and industrial life of Pakistan .Moreover the ethnic groups of the province also demand regional and to rename the province as Pakhtoonistan. Similarly the problem of ethnicity in Sindh is very complex. It is a web of discards, clash of interest and the resultant sense deprivation between the different ethnic groups. Overawed bewildered conditions, the inhabitants themselves ,sometime become bewildered and the frequent out –burst of violence creates hysteria among the people which consequences which are damaging for the peace and harmony     of     the     province     and     also     for     the     nation     as     a     whole.

Briefly, the issue of ethnicity in Pakistan is closely linked with the social economic and political elements of the state structures. The close linkage makes the problem all the more     intricate                                              and                                              complex.

The genesis of the issue can be traced to Mughal era. The Mughal ruled the sub-continent on a feudalistic pattern. When their grip softened ,this gave rise to the tribal chiefs and “Waderas “ to establish their own state. This political milieu gave opportunity to the British to establish their rule through this system and establish links with the “Waderas“ through               strong    civil                                                  services.

Pakistan came into being as a result of a popular struggle and vote , but the Muslim League which came into power was not a political party but a movement with Quaid –e – Azam as a focal point. His early death was a great set-back to the nation and fruit of independence could not reach the populace as in India ,but developed in the hands of landlords pirs and the link. The categories did not have common philosophy for themselves. Seeing this, the civil service assumed by the military and they ruled it directly and indirectly. This created a sense of deprivation and frustration amongst the people of Pakistan in  general  and in the  people  of smaller  provinces  in particular.

Unfortunately the politics of Pakistan has never been placed on some specific philosophy

,program or principle . It has been in a negation of all the ingredients of a  true democracy .It has always been confined to prisons and personalities. Every since partition the only motive behind the political alliances has been for personal gain , power and wealth .Political parties are the personal fiefdom of political leaders, scions o f inter- related families of landlords, pirs, nawabs, industrialists, business tycoons and generals. They conspire and intrigue with civil or military bureaucracy to achieve ,retain and perpetuate power. This treacherous act of traditional politicians overlapped the very sense  of                democracy                  and          brotherhood           of                      motherland.

The political and the administration structure with its highly centralized state power completely failed in providing effective popular governance . It strongly resisted the equitable distribution of power in which the elite protected its own interest .Autocracy and centralized rule practiced by the past rulers both military and civil has damaged democracy, destroyed national institutions and kept a healthy political cultural from flourishing. It has created the sense of deprivation amongst between the masses through the   country   and   has   widen   the   gap   between   the   haves   and   have-nots.

The power sharing problem has played a vital role in the political scene of the country

.The most tragic outcome of this issue is the creation of Bangladesh which has encouraged the sense of regionalism in the smaller provinces as well ethnic groups of the country. The demand for Sindhudesh and the Saraiki province are closely linked with the same ethnic sentiments of the province of Bengal now known as Bangladesh which had been      a      wing      of      Pakistan      up      to      its      separate      in      1971.

Provincial disharmony has risen out of the neglect and deprivation of smaller provinces. The centralization of power has encouraged internal dissension and disharmony. It has weakened the state and aggravated the multidimensional crises the people face in their daily life. This has resulted in deteriorating political and social fabric of the country . All the provinces were devoid of effective power and the centre enjoyed the power in majority of the subjects. Most of these were required to be decentralized and restored to the provinces and from there to grass –roots level. But no concrete effort was made by any                           military                  or           democratic                 government    of            Pakistan                .

Prior to partition Hindus dominated urban population ,but the partition led to a dramatic change in the demographic structure of the country especially in the province of Sindh. A size able population of Muhajirs started to settle in the big cities . Moreover a high rate of in country migration and from Bangladesh ,Sri Lanka , Afghanistan and Iran ., to Sindh province balance , has further contributed in changing the already fragile ethnic balance between                          Sindhi and                                         non-                             Sindhis.

Before partition, Sindh was a compact province linguistically when both Hindus and the Muslims spoke Sindhi. The demographic changes compelled by the independence shattered the linguistic homogeneity of Sindh . This development hurt local sensitive and gave        rise        to        inflamed        feelings        among        the        intelligentsia.

Large scale allotments of barrage land to Punjabis at the cost of landless peasantry of Sindh itself created strong resentment against Punjabi farmers. It should be noted here that one of the reasons for this settlement policy was that a Punjabi farmer, with his tradition of hard work and commitment to land was though to be better equipped to develop the virgin land of Sindh . But the imbalance in allotment of lands led to improper distribution of facilities in agricultural sector. As a result all these factors combined to create      strong                                             resentment                                             against.

Ethnicism is not a peculiar phenomenon. It is a trend finding its full bloom and expression in both the advance and the developing countries .As far as the case of Pakistan is concerned a comprehensive plan need to be devised to bring ethnic politics within the

force of mainstream politics. Sustained efforts should be made to cultivate faith in the constitutional means for redress of grievances and fulfillment of basic genuine demands at                                                large                                             scale                                             .

Of late, we witness a new trend , a nexus between ethnicism and the frequent use of weapons. In fact , at times ethnic culture is symbolized with the use of lethal weapons. Snipers and unidentified killers take over the streets at trivial excuse. There is , therefore, a need to completely isolate the criminals from their ethnic moorings. Only an even-handed      administration      can      come      up      to      this      serious      task.

The role of some foreign powers can’ s be glassed over. Our avowed stand on Kashmir and Afghanistan provided all the more reason to take into account counter strategies by outside     forces.     This     should     be     a     high     priority     item     on     agenda.

There should be frequent exchange of students of high academic caliber between provinces to provide opportunities to promote friendship and understanding between local and educated young ones , most of them have been caught in the ethnic web of sectarian and terrorist groups . They may be brought back to the track by providing the skilled    education    and    granting    small    loans    for    their    self-    employment.

There is an urgent need to review fiscal, industrial and commercial policies to reverse the present demographic trends. This must be done before the present apprehensions and resentments turn into violent agitation in the rural areas. After making the rural areas economically viable to live the process of migration would slow down. Industrial development within the boundaries of metropolitan cities should be discouraged and the same should be encouraged in the rural areas by offering suitable incentives like establishment of                             tax                             free   zones.

The devolution of power plan presented by the present military regime sounds well and it is a real effort to minimize the ethnicity in the country. By giving the power to the people where it actually belongs, the further well being ,stability and unity of the nation will be enhanced. It may help the government in strengthening the federation removing disharmony and restoring national cohesion. It will restore real democracy,  provide speedy justice, eradicate corruption, ensure law and order and active participation of masses in all tiers of governance. Successful direct government will play a big role and lasting political order in the country .Moreover by dismantling the existed colonial system of authority it has filled a vast gap between the masses and the state authorities at large. The development plan may be proved as a milestone in shaping an ethnic- free state,

Pakistan came into being before 60 year almost but still endeavoring to develop the institution of politics in its society. The founding father of this country, Mr. Jinnah, achieved this country democratically and constitutionally. Unfortunately destiny did not give enough time to him to draw the socio – economic, religious and political map of newly born state. During early 21 years of its life – 1947 to 1969 – Pakistan was governed by civil – military bureucracy under oligarchic and authoritarian traditions. This was first chapter of dictatorship. Second and third one  were  during  1979  to  1988  and  1999  to  2007  under  military  dictators.

First democratic election held in 1970 and a uninanimous constitution was passed by parliament in 1973 in which, democratic parliamentary government system was introduced. So here started first democratic phase (1970 – 1979) under  the inspiring  leadership   of   Zulfiqar   Ali   Bhutto.   Second   and   third   phases of democracy were  between  1988 to 1999 and 2007 to the  present date. So democratic era in Pakistan is almost 24 years. During this time, elected leaders proved themselves as a comprehensive failure and they were and they are failed to deliver to the public. Why democratic traditions are not developed in Pakistan up till  now?  What  were  and  what  are  the  major  causes  behind  failure of democracy here? Now                 I                              will                                                      explain             it.

Causes of failure of democracy in Pakistan lies in our socio – political system. Feudalism, illiterate and apathetic people, self – imposed leaders and inherited politics are a few salient features of this system. It’s a feudal state where we are living and most of our political leaders are just feudal lords and they and have assumed and established their identity as political leaders. Feudalism has been leading towards the traditions of inherited politics as well in this country. In this feudal culture, millions of people are landless and illiterate peasants and their social status is not more than a slave. In addition to this, such landless peasants community is living in acute poverty. Auctoritas of this community is not even accordance with the minimum standards of human rights. How can such impoverished, deprived and economically marginalized peasants community can express their will freely in a democratic process? The essence of democracy lies in the general will of the public. So during election, such community is supposed to express the will of the feudal lords. May be due to their lack of knowledge or the fear of the landlord, landless peasants do so. In such circumstances, can we

expect     from      landless      rural      peasants      that      they      are      able to evaluate the credibility of their so – called leaders and the manifesto of political parties before voting? I don’t think so they are able to do this. Almost 70% population of Pakistan leading life in such feudal and rural traditions. Consequently, general election becomes a selection of a few based upon the will of  a  few  who  are  powerful   and   leading   a   privileged   life.   In   this way, democracy has been reduced to oligarchy and aristocracy in our country.

In our democratic set up, our elected leaders even visit their constituencies for a for a few times as they have no any concern with the welfare of the deprived communities. As a result, firstly they don’t want to know about community problems at grass root level and secondly, they are unable to find out solutions of them.

So far as illiteracy is concerned, it is also a major root cause behind the failure of democracy in Pakistan. Literacy is the very first and the most important pre – requisite for democracy. Accordingly the Census of 1998, literacy rate of Pakistan was 43.92%.and literacy rate among rural community of Pakistan was 33.64% in 1998. But these are official and manipulated statistics which are unable to paint the real picture of our population. Actual literacy rate is even below than these figures particularly in rural areas. So maximum part of our population is still suffering in the vicious cycle of illiteracy and they are unable to contribute anything towards the development of Pakistan. Illiteracy also leads to poverty. An illiterate and economically impoverished community has only concern with bread and butter and they cannot comprehend and follow the true spirit of democracy. As a result, such community gives guns in the hands of monkeys by electing irrelevant persons who are not competent enough to cope with the contemporary national and international challenges. On the other hand, our leaders are always busy in pillaging the national resources and throwing dust into eyes of ignorant and slave people. Another beautiful manifestation of illiteracy is that most of our politicians contest election on the base of fake degrees. In such morally corrupt and illiterate nation, how democracy can flourish and become functional here?

I discussed two major causes of failure of democracy in Pakistan. So far as current democratic government is concerned, it has been failed comprehensively  to deliver as well. Democracy is here now but in a failed and a flopped form. It has become just a slogan of exploitation in Pakistan and nothing else. A democratic government is required to do provide justice, social welfare and security to the

public. But in the present setup, government has not perceived or made any such integrated package for the nation. On the other hand, corruption and embezzlement are in full swing now. There is no security for the citizens and people are being killed like rats on the name of target killing. Suicide due to poverty and unemployment has become so common now. Now in 2011, in Pakistan, maximum population comprising youth. But there is no jobs and employment for them and they are being underutilized. The sovereignty of our country and land has been simply auctioned to the Uncle Sam and Pakistan has been reduced to a colony of Ammerica. In such a way, all the state departments and institutions have been failed from bottom to top. When Pakistani public is fed up with the governance of corrupt democratic government, then sometimes they propagate that there was enough prosperity during previous military regimes and there is no doubt, military coups of the past were the consequence of failed democratic governments.

But issue is that our democratic rulers are not divine and we as a nation elect them. How we can challenge their aunthticity? Yes we cannot and they are our representatives. When general public will be socially impoverished, deprived and illiterate, it will produce incompetent, opportunist and corrupt leadership. Such leaders just  exploit  people  and  they  secure  their  vote  bank  on  the  name of democracy. Our leaders assert that they are for the people but actually, they entertain their vested interest only. Provision of social welfare, education and justice is not their priorities. The priorities of our gluttonous leadership are to secure Swiss Bank Accounts, flats in London and Saray Mahal only. Unfortunately such     attitude     has     become     modus     operandi     of     our     politicians.

At the end, I want to give some recommendations and accoutrements which are inevitable to make democracy a successful saga in Pakistan and to strengthen the fraternity of the nation in general. Sweatshops of feudalism should be closed and traditions of inherited politics must be abolished. Education and social liberty should be given to the all nation in general and to the rural community in particular. There should be social equality, justice and rule of law across the country. Irrespective of their social status and level of wealth, all the citizens should be considered equally accountable of their deeds. Youth must be promoted and young, energetic and educated people should be encouraged in every sphere of life. When our nation will be literate and social freedom will be there, then genuine and competent leadership will emerge from bottom of our society and it will focus on the social welfare and security of general public and sovereignty of

Text Box: our land. A successful execution of all these pragmatic measures may can lead towards a strong democratic Pakistan in true sense and this task is not insurmountable. Otherwise game of Chess between politicians and Military will continue as it was in the past.

The Pakistan Development Review

43 : 4 Part II (Winter 2004) pp. 651–664

The Determinants of Foreign Direct Investment in Pakistan

T  

ANJUM AQEEL and MOHAMMED NISHA  *

  1. INTRODUCTION

The significance of foreign direct investment (FDI) flows is well documented in literature for both the developing and developed countries. Over the last decade foreign direct investment have grown at least twice as rapidly as  trade  Meyer, (2003). As there is shortage of capital in the developing countries, which need capital for their development process, the marginal productivity of capital is higher in these countries. On the other hand investors in the developed world seek high returns for their capital. Hence there is a mutual benefit in the  international  movement  of capital.

The ongoing process of integration of the world economy and liberalisation of the economies in many developing countries have led to a fierce competition for inward FDI in these countries. The controls and restrictions over the entry and operations of foreign firms in these countries are now being replaced by selective policies aimed at FDI inflows, like incentives, both fiscal and in kind. The selective policies not only improve the fundamentals of the economy but they aim at attracting more foreign investments in the country.

Accordingly during early 1980s, the government in Pakistan has initiated market-based economic reform policies. These reforms began to take hold in 1988, and since than the government has gradually liberalised its trade and investment regime by providing generous trade and fiscal incentives to foreign investors through number of tax concessions, credit facilities, and tariff reduction and have also eased foreign exchange controls Khan (1999). In the 1990s, the government further liberalised the policy and opened the sectors of agriculture, telecommunications, energy and insurance to FDI. But, due to rapid political changes and inconsistency in policies the level of FDI remained low compared to other developing countries.

Anjum Aqeel is Research Economist/Assistant Professor, Applied Economics Research Centre, University of Karachi, Karachi. Mohammed Nishat is Professor and Chairman, Economics and Finance, Institute of Business Administration, Karachi.

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Nevertheless, the time series data on FDI inflows and stocks has shown remarkable progress over time particularly during the reform period of the 90’s (see Table 1).

Table 1

FDI in Pakistan

  Averages  
  1970s 1980s 1990s 2000 2001 2002 2003
FDI Inflows in Million $ 18.00 88.83 500.27 305.10 385.40 823.00 1405.33
FDI Stock as % of GDP   3.06 8.93 11.31 9.68 9.99 10.66
FDI Inflows as % of GFCF 8.89 16.54 54.93 3.62 5.01 10.32 15.42
Source: UNCTAD Data online.              

Extensive empirical literature on determinants of inward FDI emphasises the economic conditions or fundamentals of the host countries relative to the home countries of FDI as determinants of FDI flows. This literature is in line with Dunning’s eclectic paradigm (1993), which suggests that it is the locational advantages of the host countries e.g., market size and income levels, skills, infrastructure and political and macroeconomic stability that determines cross- country pattern of FDI. Following this approach Nishat and Anjum (1998), have estimated that political stability, peaceful law and order situation, level of technical labour force and mineral resources and liberal policies of the government attracted foreign investors in Pakistan.

However, it has been argued that the location specific advantages sought by foreign investors are changing in the globalised more open economies of today. Accordingly, in his path breaking work Dunning (2002) finds out that FDI from more advanced industrialised countries depends on government policies, transparent governance and supportive infrastructure of the host country. However, very few studies exist that have empirically estimated the impact of selective government policies aimed at FDI.

The present study adds to the existing literature by empirically examining the response of FDI to selective policies, namely tax and tariff policy, fiscal incentives offered and exchange rate policies in Pakistan. More specifically, the objective of this study is to find out the effectiveness of these policies during the reform period. From this study we would be able to see which specific government policy is attracting or distracting FDI in Pakistan. This study would be of interest to policy makers in many developing countries where structural reforms are being implemented.

The rest of the paper is organised that Section 2 reviews the literature and describes the theoretical framework. Section 3 describes the econometric model and data followed by estimation and interpretation of results in Section 4. The summary and concluding remarks are provided in Section 5.

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  • LITERATURE REVIEW AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

An extensive set of determinants has been analysed in the literature on the determinants of FDI. Numerous empirical studies [Agarwal (1980); Gastanaga et. al. (1998); Chakrabarti (2001) and Moosa (2002)] on the determinants of FDI lead us to select a set of explanatory variables that are widely used and found to be significant determinants of FDI. For example [Markusen and Maskus (1999); Lim (2001); Love and Lage-Hidalgo (2000); Lipsey (2000) and Moosa (2002)] highlight how the domestic market size and differences in factor costs can relate  to  the location of FDI. To foreign investors who operate in industries characterised by relatively large economies of scale, the importance of the market size and its growth is magnified. This is because they can exploit scales economies only after the market attains a certain threshold size. The most widely used measures of market size are GDP, GDP/capita and growth in GDP. The signs of these coefficients are usually positive.

Discussing the labour cost which is one of the major components of the cost function, it is mentioned that high nominal wage, other things being equal, deters FDI. This must be particularly true for the firms, which engage in labour-intensive production activities. Therefore, conventionally, the expected sign for this variable is negative. The studies that find no significant or a negative relationship of wage and FDI are: [Kravis and Lipsey (1982); Wheeler and Mody (1990); Lucas (1993); Wang and Swain (1995) and Barrell and Pain (1996)]. Nonetheless, there are other researchers who have found out that higher wages do not always deter FDI in all industries and have shown a positive relationship between labour costs and FDI [Moore (1993) and Love and Lage-Hidalgo (2000)]. Because higher wages indicate higher productivity, hi-tech research oriented industries in which the  quality  of labour matters, prefer high-quality labour to cheap labour with low productivity.

Recently, a few researchers have also studied the impact of specific policy variables on FDI in the host countries. These policy variables include openness of trade, tariff, taxes and exchange rate. Gastanaga, Nugent, and Pashamova (1998) and Asiedu (2002) focus on policy reforms in developing countries as determinants of foreign direct investment inflows. They find corporate tax rates and degree of openness to foreign direct investment to be significant determinants of FDI. Similarly many recent models highlight the effect of tariffs on FDI within the context of horizontal and vertical specialisation within MNEs [Ether (1994,1996); Brainard (1997); Carr, Markusen, and Maskus (2001)].

The horizontal FDI can be associated with market seeking behaviour and is motivated by lower trade costs. Hence high tariff barriers induce firms to engage in horizontal FDI, and thus, replace exports with production abroad by foreign affiliates This “tariff jumping” theory implies a positive relationship between import duty and FDI. While a typical vertical FDI can be characterised by individual affiliates specialising in different stages of production of the output. The semi-finished products,

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in turn, are exported to other affiliates for further processing. By fragmenting the production process, parent firms and affiliates take advantage of factor price differentials across countries. The MNEs, which set up vertical production networks may be encouraged to invest in a country with relatively low tariff barriers due to lower cost of their imported intermediate products. Therefore, the expected sign of import duty variable is negative in this case. With the decline in tariff rate due to trade liberalisation in the developing countries, imports have increased by MNC’s. For Pakistan, Khan (1999) confirms that imports have increased by MNC’s as trade is being liberalised as a result of the recent structural reforms.

For foreign investors the fiscal incentives and taxation structure is very important. The tax rate affects the profitability of investment projects. Therefore foreign investors seek locations where taxes are low. Various tax break regimes are often offered to multinationals as an incentive to attract FDI inflows. Empirical studies indicated a negative relationship between taxes and the location of businesses [Newman and Sullivan (1988); Gastanaga, et al. (1998); Billington (1999); Shah and Masood (2002) and Campa (2002)]. On the other hand Carlton (1983); Hines and Rice (1994) and Hines (1996) found no support on the impact of taxes on FDI. Interestingly, Swensen (1991) empirically finds a significant positive effect of taxes on inward FDI.

Likewise the effect of exchange rate movements on FDI flows is a fairly well studied topic, although the direction and magnitude of influence is far from certain. Froot and Stein (1991) claimed that a depreciation of the host currency should increase FDI into the host country, and conversely an appreciation of the host currency should decrease FDI. Similarly, Love and Hidalgo (2000), also acknowledge that the lagged variable of exchange rate is positive which indicates that a depreciation of the peso encourages US direct investment in Mexico after some time. Contrary to Froot and Stein (1991); Campa (1993), while analysing foreign firms in the US puts forth the hypothesis that an appreciation of the host currency will in fact increase FDI into the host country that suggests that an appreciation of the host currency increases expectations of future profitability in terms of the home currency.

  • ECONOMETRIC MODEL SPECIFICATION AND DATA

In the light of above discussion following model is formulated to determine the impact of various types of selective government polices and other variables to attract FDI in Pakistan during 1961–2002:

FDIt = f (GDPt, WAGEt,, TARIFt , TAXt, CREDITt , EXt, INDEXt, DUM1t, DUM2t)

where

FDI =  Growth in FDI inflows(deflated by GDP deflator).

The Determinants of Foreign Direct Investment                               655

GDP =  Log of GDP/Capita.

WAGE =  Log of Average Annual wages of factory workers in perennial Industries (deflated by GDP deflator).

TAX =  Corporate Tax as a ratio to total Tax.

TARIF =  Ratio of custom duties to total value of imports.

CREDIT =  Share of credit of the private sector in total credit to public and private sectors.

EX =  Average Annual Exchange Rate as rupees/$.

INDEX  = Log of General Share Price Index.

DUM1  = 1 for the period 1972 to 2003, 0 otherwise.

DUM2  = 1 for the period 1989 to 2003, 0 otherwise.

We expect that the coefficient of GDP would be positive because foreign investors are only interested where there is a big market of their product. The coefficient for WAGE would be negative as there is low level of skilled labour force in Pakistan and only labour intensive FDI would be forthcoming as wages are low. It has been observed that as trade is being liberalised and tariffs are being eliminated on the import of machinery, FDI has increased in Pakistan. Therefore, we expect a negative relationship between FDI and TARIF. As credit to foreign investors is an investment incentive, we expect a positive sign for coefficient of CREDIT. The coefficient for exchange rate (EX) is ambiguous in many studies. As it could be positive if foreign investors are considering it as lower cost of capital and negative if they are expecting a higher return on their investments. A positive sign for INDEX suggests that the foreign investors are concerned with the investment climate of the country. However, if the sign of INDEX is negative it could be interpreted that the government pursues policies to attract FDI when capital market is sluggish. The data used in the empirical investigation covers annual data for the period from 1961 to 2003. The data of FDI is collected from various issues of “Assets, Liabilities and Foreign Investment” published by State Bank of Pakistan. The exchange rate is extracted from the electronic data of “International Financial Statistics”. The data of all the other variables are from “50 Years of Pakistan” and various issues of “Pakistan Statistical Year Book” published by Federal Bureau of Statistics, Government of Pakistan.

  • ESTIMATION AND EMPIRICAL RESULTS

To investigate the nature of any long-run relationship between FDI inflows and the variables suggested in our model, we now proceed to examine whether the series are cointegrated, implying that any deviations from any long run equilibrium relationship that exists between them will themselves be stationary. Unless series are cointegrated, there is no equilibrium relationship between variables and inference is worthless. Our justification for employing the techniques of co-integration in this

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instance amount to two related reasons; First, discovering that variables are co- integrated, allows for the use of error-correction models which allow for the separation out of long run and short run impacts; see Alogoskoufis and Smith, (1991). Second, the presence of co-integration between two variables ensures that an OLS regression in levels yields consistent parameter estimates; Engle and Granger, (1987). This would in effect signify whether there is a stable long run relationship between the variables. An empirical work by Dickey, Jansen and Thornton (1991) indicates that Johansen’s (1988) maximum likelihood estimator of a vector autoregressive (VAR) model is superior. Testing for cointegration using a single equation model is problematic if more than one cointegrating relationship is present. Moreover, Johansen’s test allows some variables to be I(1) and some I(0) [see Cheng and Lai (1997)].

  • Unit Root Test

To test for Cointegration, we first verify that all the above-mentioned variables that we expect to be cointegrated with growth in FDI flows are each individually I(1). In this section we perform unit root tests for stationarity on the levels and the first differences of all eight variables. The Phillips Perron unit-root test with trend show the existence of unit roots at 3 lags (Table2), and therefore non-stationarity, in the levels of some variables (TARIF, TAX, CREDIT, IIDEX, GDP and WAGE). However, the first differences of these six variables are stationary at 1 percent significance level. Hence we conclude that these variables are integrated of order 1. The FDI is stationary at the level, and is therefore an I(0) variable. The variable EX is stationary in levels with out trend and stationary at first difference with trend.

Table 2

Phillips-Perron Unit Root Test

With Trend

  Level First Difference
FDI –6.27*
TARIF –2.30 –5.53*
TAX –3.06 –7.85*
CREDIT –2.75 –6.69*
EX 1.06 –5.82*
INDEX –2.23 –6.47*
GDP –4.02 –10.51*
WAGE –2.63 –6.44*
* Significant at 1 percent. ** Significant at 5 percent.    
  • Estimation of a Cointegrating Vector

In order to identify a cointegration relation among the variables mentioned in the  previous  subsection,  we  employ  the  Johansen  cointegration  test.  Before

The Determinants of Foreign Direct Investment                               657

undertaking the cointegration tests, we first specify the relevant order of lags (p) of the vector autoregressions (VAR) model.

Since the sample size is relatively small, we select 1 for the order of the VAR [Pesaran and Pesaran (1997)]. The results of rank and trace statistics obtained from the Johansen-Juselius (JJ) method using the assumption of linear deterministic trend in the data are presented in Table 3. The trace and the rank tests suggest r = 1 at 5 and 10 percent significance levels respectively. Therefore, our annual data appear to support the proposition that in Pakistan there exists a long-run relation between growth of FDI and its determinants. The normalised cointegrating vector has been reported in Table 4 for reference.

Table 3

Johansen’s Cointegration Test Results

  Null Alternative Trace Alternative Rank Trace Test Statistic Rank Test Statistics
r = 0 r < 1 r > 1 r > 2 r = 1 r = 2 160.97** 112.55 48.42*** 39.837
r < 2 r > 3 r = 3 72.71 23.391
r < 3 r > 4 r = 4 49.32 21.48
r < 4 r > 5 r = 5 27.84 12.89
r < 5 r > 6 r = 6 14.95 9.25
r < 6 r > 7 r = 7 5.70 5.09
r < 7 r > 8 r = 8 0.61 0.61

** Significant at 5 percent.

*** Significant at 10 percent.

See Lenum (1992), for critical values.

Table 4

Normalised Long-run Cointegration Equation

Cointegrating Equation       Cointegrating Equation 1 FDICG(–1)                                                       1

TARIF(–1)                                         –32.56

–17.80

TAX(–1)                                           –11.80

–5.56

CRERR(–1)                                           7.37

2.65

EXAVG(–1)                                        –0.39

–10.70

GINDL(–1)                                         –0.85

–3.99

GDPCPL(–1)                                       26.47

16.17

WAGCL(–1)                                          0.18

0.78

C                                                   –198.24

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  • Estimation of an Error-correction Model

After confirming the long run relationship among the variables, we can proceed to model the short run adjustment behaviour of the variables as further confirmation of our results. Following Love and Lage-Hidalgo (2000), we  can choose to estimate the short run VAR in error correction form (VECM). The VECM model is intended to describe the short-term dynamics of growth of FDI inflows in Pakistan. This type of model explains the immediate short-term changes in dependent variable by means of deviations from a particular equilibrium relationship between the dependent variable and the explanatory variables. The common approach is to reformulate the long run relationship to include lagged values of first differences in the relevant variables with the error correction term explicitly included.

So now we use deviations from the cointegration relation estimated in the previous section as the error-correction term when building the ECM. Two error correction models with and without dummies are estimated to distinguish the behaviour of foreign direct investment during non-reform and reform periods. In particular, two dummies are used to reflect the changes in the government measures, which could have affected the growth of FDI. One DUM1 reflects the structural break reflecting a massive devaluation of rupee of about 58 percent in 1972, it takes the value of 1 for 1972 and onwards and the other DUM2 which reflects the liberalisation measures taken under the structural reforms of 1988, takes the value of 1 for 1989 and onwards.1 The results of estimation of the ECMs are shown in Table 4.The lags of the explanatory variables are chosen in according to Akaike Information Criteria and indicate lags upto two periods.

  • Interpretation of Empirical Results

The analysis of the results of these two ECM models presented in Table 5 suggests that model 2 has more explanatory power with adjusted R2 = 0.84, and satisfies the relevant diagnostic checks for serial correlation, functional form, non- normality and heteroscedasticity and thus has the desirable properties for OLS estimation. The results of model 2 indicate that the error correction coefficient, estimated at –1.87 is statistically significant at the 1 percent level, has the correct sign, and suggests a good speed of convergence to equilibrium. As indicated all the variables except the average wage and index of general share prices are statistically significant and have the expected signs. The insignificant behaviour of stock market index indicates that during the study period the stock market is not contributing in explaining the growth in FDI inflows in Pakistan. Furthermore, the lagged dependent

variable  included  in  the  error-correction model has positive sign and is statistically

1Dummy for the period 1998 and onwards for nuclear test was also tried but indicated statistically insignificant impact on FDI.

  The Determinants of Foreign Direct Investment   659 Table 5 Vector Error-correction Models     Model 1 Model 2   Error-correction: D(FDICG) D(FDICG)      
Coint Eq1 –1.36* (–4.34) –1.87* (–9.85)
D(FDI(–1)) 0.38 (1.48) 0.42* (3.10)
D(FDI(–2)) 0.30 (1.36) 0.19 (1.62)
D(TARIF(–1)) –35.67** (–2.46) –21.34** (–2.64)
D(TARIF(–2)) –25.68 (–1.60) –16.06 (–1.67)
D(TAX(–1)) 28.91 (1.20) –47.74* (–3.38)
D(TAX(–2)) 6.88 (0.30) –36.22** (–2.59)
D(CREDIT(–1)) –1.16 (–0.05) 48.69* (3.37)
D(CREDIT(–2)) 45.94** (2.22) 43.82* (3.70)
D(EX(–1)) –0.55 (–1.02) –0.65*** (–2.00)
D(EX(–2)) 1.47*** (2.05) –0.64 (–1.53)
D(INDEX(–1)) –5.81*** (–1.88) –1.70 (–0.91)
D(INDEX(–2)) 2.45 (0.89) –2.49 (–1.44)
D(GDP(–1)) 53.23* (3.08) 35.84* (3.69)
D(GDP(–2)) –14.05 (–0.69) 23.11*** (1.87)
D(WAGE(–1)) –3.16*** (–1.81) –1.30 (–1.34)
D(WAGE(–2)) –4.00*** (–1.73) 0.01 (0.01)
C –1.79 (–1.54) –15.95* (–9.09)
DUM2     6.71* (6.39)
DUM1     16.88* (13.40)
R-squared   0.72   0.92
Adj. R-squared   0.50   0.84
RESET 0.71 (0.409) .04 (0.85)
LM 3.51 (0.050) 0.99 (0.39)
WHITE 2.96 (0.149) 1.11 (0.58)
JB 0.78 (0.47) 1.13 (0.57)
* Significant at 1 percent. ** Significant at 5 percent. *** Significant at 10 percent.        

significant. This means that the short-run dynamics of inward FDI are influenced by the previous development of FDI influx by means of the “agglomeration” or “clustering effect”. Thus our results give some evidence that reducing import tariffs and corporate tax rate would positively affect the growth of FDI. Moreover, the coefficient of exchange rate is positive implying that when rupee appreciates, FDI increases as investors see it as a good sign for the economy and expect  high  returns.  However,  DUM1  is  positive  and  significant  which  also

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indicates that devaluation had decreased the cost of assets in Pakistan and attracted foreign investment or perhaps since the data on FDI is in rupees, there is just a nominal jump in the data. Additionally, encouraging private sector through its generous credit policy would accelerate the growth of FDI. More importantly, the statistical significance of our dummy DUM2 reinforces our results that the liberalisation measures taken to attract FDI have positive impacts on the growth of FDI in Pakistan.

  • SUMMARY AND CONCLUDING REMARKS

The paper empirically identifies the determinants of growth in  foreign direct investment (FDI) in Pakistan over the period 1961 to 2003. Our main interest is to study how different variables or indicators reflecting trade, fiscal and financial sector liberalisation attract FDI in Pakistan. The study uses the Cointegration and error-correction techniques to identify the variables in explaining the FDI in Pakistan. The study considers the tariff rate, exchange rate, tax rate, credit to private sector and index of general share price variables if they explain the inflow of foreign direct investment. Also included are wages and per capita GDP to test for relative demand for labour and market size hypotheses. All variables indicated correct signs and are statistically significant except for wage rate and share price index. The study clearly emphasises the role of these policy variables in attracting FDI and determining its growth in both short and long run in Pakistan. The study also indicates a positive and significant impact of reforms on FDI in Pakistan.

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Global Zero: World without Nuclear Weapons

Outline

  1. Introduction
  2. Brief history of nuclear weapons
  3. Perils of nuclear weapons
  4. Need to eliminate nuclear weapons
  5. Global zero initiative
  6. Is this goal achievable? Yes:
    1. Historical support
    1. Political will
    1. Strong public support
    1. New leadership
  7. How to achieve it? Procedure/Strategy:
    1. Ratification of NPT/CTBT
    1. Reduction by the US and Russia
    1. Elimination by all nuclear states
    1. Follow up: control mechanism
  8. Creation of International Nuclear Fuel-Bank
  9. Advantages of nuclear zero
  10. Conclusion

“This is the moment to begin the work of seeking the peace of world without nuclear weapons” (Barak Obama)

Man has achieved tremendous progress in developing scientific technology for the welfare and well-being of humanity, but simultaneously, he has also developed weapons for his own destruction. To acquire power–the most flagrant of all passions–he created weapons including explosive, chemical, biological and nuclear. Among them, the nuclear weapons are the most destructive causing mass destruction. Though, these have been used once in history during the World War-II, these have created a perpetual fear of annihilation  among all humans. Now, with the evolving of a multi-cultural globalised world, there is an increase in momentum to develop a consensus for achieving Global Zero- elimination of  all nuclear weapons. To succeed in this initiative, the need is to sit together, contemplate, devise a strategy and agree to divert this capability from weapons to welfare of humanity. The most resounding argument, generating urge to achieve this surpassable task lies in the brief history of apocalyptic perils of nuclear weapons.

The perils of atomic weapons were manifest as the two cities of Japan were wreaked when the bombs were dropped on them. In Hiroshima, some 75,000 people were immediately killed by blast, fire and radiation. Another 70,000 died by the end of 1945. Three days later in Nagasaki, plutonium bomb killed about 40,000 people immediately, another 75,000 died by the end of 1945. Five days after Nagasaki’s flattening, Japan surrendered. But the impact didn’t stop there. Thousands people died in following years due to radiation. Tens of thousands became disabled. Not only the people present at the time suffered but the ‘unborn’ as well. Thousands others were born with deformities and

genetic disorders due to which successive generations have suffered.

The Americans and Japanese learned different lessons from these bombings.

“The Americans lesson was; the nuclear weapons win wars, and therefore have value. The Japanese learned that human being and nuclear weapons cannot co-exist.” (David Krieger, President Nuclear Age Peace Foundation). However, the danger posed by nuclear weapons today is far greater than the destruction they caused in Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

Today, the number of nuclear weapons around the world is about 30,000 bombs with far greater weight and destruction power. Even a fraction of these weapons could put an end to human as well as other species on our planet. It is clear that if we don’t achieve ‘Global Zero’, our planet is always at risk, of being converted into a ‘Ground Zero’. This could happen not only due to a deliberate act but also accidental incident. Therefore, there is a strong reason that ‘these weapons must be abolished before they abolish us’.

The need to eliminate nuclear weapons is not only because these can be used for destruction in war but also because they pose equal danger in times of peace. There have been “Close Calls” to annihilation in various occasions. [In 1995] President Boris Yeltsin was informed that a nuclear missile was speeding towards the heart of Russia. Russian nuclear forces, already on hair-trigger alert, were put in even higher alert. Russian policy called for a “launch on warning”. The fate of the planet hung in the balance. Yeltsin wisely waited. And within those moments, the alarm declared false. “An unimaginable nuclear disaster had barely been avoided”, declared America’s Defense Monitor, Center for Defence Information, December 26, 1999.

Another, important incident took place in the US on August 31, 2007. Air Force crew loaded six live nuclear warheads onto a 8-52 Bomber and flew from ‘Minot Air Force Base’ in North Dakota to ‘Barksdak Air Force Base’ in cruising over the country’s heartland (Around 15 states). Each warhead was 10 times more powerful than the

atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In analysis report, America’s Defence science Board (DSB) revealed that ‘six of the planet’s most powerful weapons were missing and no one noticed until they had landed in Louisiana after flight of 3 ½ hours.’ The report concluded that ‘human error was at the heart of the incident.’

This incident underscores the risk of accidental nuclear explosion threat due to ‘human error’ even in the country of its origin and in the ‘peace times’. It is important to note that this incident occurred in the US, which claims to employ world’s best safety standards for nuclear weapons. While the US itself keeps expressing concern over the safety of Pakistan’s nuclear arsenal.

It is learnt from these incidents that the humanity is at the risk of just single human error, if the nuclear weapons exist in the world. Therefore, wisdom calls for elimination of all nuclear weapons in order to make the future of humanity—our generation and our future generations – safe and secure.

In addition, the Cold War which was the pushing force behind nuclear race has ended two decades ago. Also due to the interdependence of states in the current scenario, there is unlikeness of revival of such conflicts.

Moreover, the presence of nuclear weapons in some states provides reason and pretext for other ambitious nations to acquire the same status. This unwise race has itself caused devastating effects on economy and human development, particularly in developing countries.

One of the major world powers, the USSR too, collapsed under the heavy burden of extraordinary defence spending on economy. The developing countries like India, Pakistan, and North Korea also joined the race. They did succeed in acquiring nuclear weapons but their poor population is suffering from abjectpoverty. A country like Pakistan, which is merely surviving at the edge of economic insolvency, could gain much economic growth, had the resources been utilised for the welfare of people. Iranians are bearing the sanctions imposed by western powers through the UN for pursuing nuclear technology, which according to them, is aimed at acquiring weapons.

Besides, the argument to possess nuclear weapons to maintain deterrence capability has also lost its ground. More the states acquire ‘nukes’, more the risk of their use builds-up. Moreover, the presence of nukes always poses risk of slipping into the hands of  terrorists. Admiral Noel Gayler, a former commander-in-chief of the Pacific Command of US Navy, asks, “Is difference of nuclear weapons still possible?” He answers, “No”. He also questions, “Does nuclear disarmament imperil our security?” He answers, “No, it

enhances it.” As human – beings are fallible, deterrence is not a perfect system. It can be failed by human error, accident, miscalculation or simply miscommunication. “Does it make sense to risk the future of our cities and even the human species on an unprovable theory?”, David Krieger, founder of the Nuclear Age Peace Foundation.

This is why, fortunately, the initiative of achieving peace of the world without nuclear weapons is gaining support among both the senior military and the political leaders of the world. The increasing number of leaders have realised what Abraham Lincoln said, “We must think anew and act anew.” Recently many world leaders have expressed willingness to move towards this goal. British Prime Minister Gorden Brown said in March 2008 that the UK was ready to work for “a world that is free from nuclear weapons.” On December 5, 2008, Nicholas Sarkozy, the French President, while holding EU Presidency, wrote a letter to UN General Secretary, outlining an EU plan to advance global progress toward nuclear disarmament.

In order to seize this positive trend, to achieve the commitment of the entire international community, and to re-energise effort for complete nuclear disarmament, a new initiative “Global Zero” was launched on December 9, 2008, in Paris. The initiative was endorsed by 100 international political, military, business and civic leaders across the world. The signatories included former US President Jimmy Carter, former Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev, former British Foreign Secretary Margaret Becket, Queen Noor of Jordan, Ehasnul Haq, former Joint Chief of the Staff committee (JCSC) of Pakistan,  former Indian National Security advisor Brajes Mishra.

Global Zero envisages eliminating nuclear weapons through phased and verified reduction over a period of years. Key steps include:

  • Massive reduction in Russian-US arsenal.
  • Complete elimination to zero by all states.
  • Establishing verification system to keep check.
  • International management of the fuel cycle.

There are many positive indicators which indicate why this goal is achievable. First; there is a strong historical support. Throughout the nuclear age, even at the height of the Cold War, leaders foresaw a day when the world could be free of nukes. In 1986, Soviet Premier Mikhail Gorbachev and US President Ronald Reagan agreed that: “A nuclear war could never be won and must never be fought.” In 1999, Chinese President Jiang Zemin stated: “There is no reason why nuclear weapons should not be comprehensively banned and completely destroyed.”

Second; as Jiang Zemin had emphasised in his statement, ‘What it takes to reach this objective is no more than a strong political will.’ The world leaders agree with the idea of a world without nukes and have the means to achieve it. What they only need is the ‘Political will’. Some analysts argue that even if the major world powers agree to eliminate nuclear weapons, country like Iran might not agree to abandon its ambition.

Though Iran’s nuclear weapon ambitions is a fallacy, there is a strong reason why Iran would follow the course. “If there is growing support by nuclear powers and public opinion worldwide, I think it becomes harder for any government, including Iran, to cross that barrier”, said Richard Burt, who was Washington’s Chief negotiator in the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START) talks in the early 1990s. Naturally, no country can afford to be on the one side and whole of the world on the other.

Third; there is a strong support among majority of the people around the world. A poll of 21 countries conducted by Program on International Policy Attitudes (PIPA), USA, shows that global public opinion is overwhelmingly in favours of an international agreement for eliminating all nuclear weapons. 76 per cent of respondents, across all countries polled, favour such an agreement. As the public opinion tends to direct the policies of governments, it is likely that the leaders would come to the table.

Fourth; at this time particular, there is a new and great opportunity. US President Barak Obama and Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin have signalled to work on nuclear disarmament. The former declared, “This is the moment to begin the works of seeking the peace of a world without nuclear weapons.” Similarly, Russian Prime Minister Putin expressed in a speech in September 2008 to “Close this Pandora’s Box”.

This new and unprecedented political support from the heads of the world’s most important governments’ for zero nuclear weapons has made this goal possible. This moment offers both the possibilities and dangers. Possibilities; because of new leadership in the US which appears to support the goal of nuclear abolition. Dangers; because, if this moment passes without action, then the nuclear-race could quickly gather pace with many more states acquiring weapons and the risk of weapons falling into the hands of terrorists would increase.

This opportunity must be seized. It is the time for a new beginning to achieve a world free of nuclear weapons. This moment calls for embracing possibilities and dispelling dangers. The phased and verifiable elimination of nuclear weapons is possible. Here are some of the steps needed to achieve this goal:

Firstly; the ratification of Non Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). The NPT, which was sponsored by the US, UK and the USSR, was aimed “to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons and weapon technology, to promote cooperation in the peaceful use of nuclear energy and to further the goal of achieving nuclear disarmament”. The treaty was signed by 187 states and was ratified in 1975. However, the US, its sponsors, did not ratify it. Other four countries which have not signed it are: India, Pakistan, Israel and Cuba. Similarly, CTBT, introduced in 1995, has not been  ratified by many states, including the US. It is strongly felt that if the US ratifies these treaties, others would follow the course. “Early the US ratification would do much to encourage the few remaining states to follow suit,” wrote David Miliband, UK’s former Foreign Secretary, in The Washington Post on December 8, 2008.

Secondly; negotiations between Washington and Moscow should start to cut back nuclear stockpiles to minimum. According to moderate estimates, the US and Russia have about 26000 of total 27000 weapons in the world. As both these states possess largest stockpiles—96 per cent of all the nuclear weapons in the world—they should reduce their arsenal in the first step. “Process needs to start with American and Russian leaderships”, argues Richard Burt.

This is an absolutely insensible approach to accumulate that much big arsenal that fraction of which can destroy the whole world. “When a country can be destroyed by a dozen weapons, its own possession of thousands of weapons gains no security”, says Admiral Noel Gayler. The huge possession of nukes itself puts larger responsibility on the US and Russia to initiate the process of disarmaments up to minimum level. The successful conclusion of ‘START NEW’ between both powers strengthens the possibility of reaching an agreement on nuclear disarmament.

Thirdly; following the reductions by the US and Russia, the rest of the countries can be brought on board for complete abolition of nukes. It would not be a difficult task. Once the powerful countries lead the course, rest will follow them. Perhaps others seem poised to welcome such move. The willingness of China, the UK and France has already been mentioned. The two South Asian countries India and Pakistan are also ready to shun the nukes. Last June, Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh, backed the same goal, saying that: “The only effective form of nuclear disarmament and elimination of nuclear weapons is global disarmament.” President Zardari has also talked of “nuclear weapon- free South Asia”. North Korea is already on-board in six-party talks and has also committed to abolish nuclear weapons for economic incentives. The only country which has stayed silent is Israel which is undeclared nuclear state. But given the leverage, Washington enjoys over it, Israel will have to be part of the process.

Once this process sets in momentum, the weapons could be delivered to a single and common remote place in oceans for dismantling under the supervision of skilled scientists. The nuclear material could be returned to the donors for use in the energy

sector or disposal.

Lastly, having achieved the complete and verified elimination of nuclear weapons from the world, all the countries will have to conclude a joint treaty at the UN platform banning any development of nuclear weapons and technology. As Queen Noor of Jordan told BBC, “We have to work on de-legitimising the status of nuclear weapons.” This is vital for making the elimination of nukes irreversible. This would require establishing many mechanisms to constitute an eventual regime for overseeing the global ban.

It is also important to realise that advantage of use of nuclear technology for peaceful purposes is too great to be ignored. The NPT also underscores ‘to promote cooperation in the peaceful use of nuclear energy’. And, every country has the right to acquire nuclear technology for peaceful purposes. But given the element of conflict in international affairs and atmosphere of mistrust, all the countries can’t be trusted as reliable for not pursuing the ambitions of acquiring nuclear weapons again. This situation warrants a new approach, which would allow the use of nuclear energy and deny the weapons technology.

The Global Zero initiative envisages ‘international management of the fuel cycle to prevent future development of nuclear weapons.’ “An agreement on a new International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) led system that would help states wishing to develop a civil nuclear energy industry to do so without increasing the risk of nuclear weapon proliferation” says David Miliband. Creation of such international fuel bank would also end the conflicts in the world like Iran Nuclear Issue. This proposal was also forwarded by IAEA’s former head Muhammad Elbradi as early as in 2003, that: “all production and processing of nuclear material be under international control”. This novel idea has attracted the EU and an American billionaire ‘Warren Buffett’ for financing the project.

In this way, the world could not only be safe from destruction and the humanity from annihilation, but the tremendous energy potential of the nuclear resources could also be utilised for the welfare of people. The resources that go into weapons would help keep people safe and healthy and to give them opportunities. Not only the world is facing energy crisis due to depletion of fossil fuels, but with their emissions our environment is being damaged severely. Nuclear power possesses tremendous energy and simultaneously it is clean energy. It is important for health purposes as it is used in the treatment of many diseases, including cancer. Its use in agriculture enhances crop yield which would help mitigate the food crisis.

Global Zero offers two–pronged benefits: achieving safety by eliminating nuclear weapons and to achieve prosperity by using nuclear energy. The leaders of world have the greatest moral responsibility to seize the opportunity for the welfare of the living and the future generations of mankind. As Benazir Bhutto said, “We owe it to our children to build a world free of the threat of nuclear annihilation.”

Text Box: GOOD GOVERNANCE
Text Box: This poetical chaos started with the dissolution of 1 constituent assembly in the most undemocratic and arbitrary manner by Governor General Ghulam Mohammad in 1954. Since then Pakistan’s internal strife has been plaguing including constitutional crises. He replaced Khawaja Nazim-ud-Din by Mohammad Ali Bogra. Then foreign Ambassador of Pakistan in the United States. In the second cabinet of Mohammad Alil Bogra, Mohammad Ayub Khan, then C-in-C, was included. While paving the way of military’s involvement in the country’s political affairs, culminating in the imposition of ML in 1958.
Text Box: The first Martial Law was imposed by Ayub Khan in 1958 and lasted till 1969. He abrogated the constitution of 1965. He introduced Presidential system with indirect elections. His era was known as “Decade of Development” which later on proved to be “Decade of Exploitation” as his policy of privatization widened the gap between “haves”
and “have nots”. The national wealth was concentrated into the Ayub also created  
resentment among the students. Although economic indicators improved significantly  
during Ayub’s Martial lust for power prevented him from leaving his high position with
impossible and Ayub’s regime resulted in total fiasco (confusion).  
Text Box: He raised the slogan of providing basic necessities to the people like Roti, Kapra and Makan. His economic policy was totally different. In 1972, he undertook a massive “nationalization” programme in which he nationalized all those industries set up in the private sector. In first phase 31 units were nationalized which fell under 10 categories. They were iron and steel Industries, basic metals, heavy engineering etc. In second phase 1073-74, he undertook second phase of nationalization which people were not expecting. It created great panic among the industrialist, as they were not expecting the nationalization was not an extensive exercise and could not arrest inflation effectively as it was planned to do so. The PPP government public enterprises were controlled by BIM.
Text Box: Again Martial Law intervened in 1977 and the so-called popular leader elected by common people through dubious elections was hanged. Whatever the circumstances were, the step
Text Box: was unconstitutional. Zia’s Martial Regime was supposed to be the shortest one but it turned out to be the longest in the history of Pakistan. Zia did not abrogate the constitution o f1973 but suspended. At that point of time a strong Pakistan from military point of view was needed because of Afghan problem and the revolution of Iran. Both of then could have their repercussions beyond their boundaries. Zia’s regime opened the gates of foreign aid in Pakistan as country was going through adverse economic crises.
Besides, Zia undertook massive Islamic programme in order to seek legitimacy ofr his  
prolonged rule. He issued various ordinances to bring existing laws in line with principles
of Quran and Sunnah. He decided to promulgate 1973 Constitution with necessary amendments. He passed his famous 8 amendment curtailing the power of head of  
government through article 58 2(b) and provided significant power to the president who  
could dissolve National Assembly whenever he thinks that need has arisen.  
Text Box: He held local elections in 1983 on non-party basis. Then he held referendum in 1984 and main aim was to seek public mandate for Zia’s various steps, which he had already taken since 1977. In January 1985, he held general elections which were also on non-party basis. It became difficult to choose P.M and C.M from elected assemblies.
Text Box: Election were again held on 2 February 1997, and Nawaz Sharif came into power. The results were amazing for everyone. The PML (N) made clean sweep in the elections and got a wide majority. But in 1999 a military coup took place led by General Musharraf. The Army was yet again in power promising again of smooth transfer of power to grass root
In Pakistan except Bhotto’s government, no government has completed its expected life
span. After Junejo, many governments were disbanded in the period of 9 years. This  
game of power musical chair has seriously affected the economic and social progress of  
our country.  
Political parties have not done their job properly of inculcating political awareness among
the masses. Most of the times they have failed to mobilize public opinion. Instead of  
securing confidence of the people, they introduced horse trading which has shattered the confidence of people in politicians and political parties. Moreover, political parties led to extreme political polarization in the society which affected the law and order situation in
the country. Karachi provides the best example.  
Text Box: In order to attain quality of governance, people instead of the accountability of the previous or failed rulers, must ask for participation in decision making and in the execution of the policies evolved through a democratic consultative process.
Text Box: In order to have an effect system of governance, participation of women should be ensured as according to the latest count men: women ratio is 48:52 respectively. The number of seats that are taken negligible; it’s almost non-existent at the moment.
Text Box: this is high time that consensus must be developed among the people that what system of government can suit them better. Keeping in view the pluralistic society of Pakistan, federal system of government can serve people better but sufficient powers must be given to the provinces in order to tackle problems of the people in an appropriate way.
The crucial importance of good governance can be witnessed by the experience of East  
Asian countries. Between 1965 and 1990, the region registered the highest growth rate in the world and combined it with high living standards. The single most important factor in
this economic miracle was the fact that these countries were able to put in place sound  
and sustainable framework.  

GREAT NATIONS WIN WITHOUT FIGHTING

Submitted By: Ghulam Abbas

Outline:
  • I. Introduction.
  • II. Switzerland, the peaceful most state of the world.
  • III. The economic rise of Japan after World War-II.
  • IV. China won over other states without going into the fighting.
  • The permanent membership of United Nations Security Council.
  • The economic development of China.
  • V. Nelson Mandella and the end of apartheid in South Africa.
  • VI. The western culture around the globe.
  • VII. The technological advancement of the West.
  • VIII. The common-border and common-currency of the European Union.
  • IX. Conclusion.

Introduction

Human being is the superior creature on the universe – using its wisdom it can achieve such a goal which otherwise seems impossible. The use of force to achieve a desired goal has been an old phenomenon. All those nations which have won over others have not opted force as their priority. Switzerland is considered to be the peaceful most state of the world, today Japan is considered among the leading economies of the world, People’s Republic of China had got independence in 1949, but today the Communist China is a leading economy. These all countries have achieved this rank without going into fight. The legal discrimination (apartheid) in South Africa has died its own death due to the unarmed struggle of the black community spearheaded by Nelson Mandella, the development in science and technology and cultural influence of the West is imposed upon others without fighting. A great nation can win by maintaining peace within, by strengthening her economy at global- level, by focusing upon its national goal, by an unarmed and untired struggle, by focusing in the field of science and technology, by focusing in the field of education and by struggling for a common cause. It is an undeniable fact that the great-nations win without fighting.

Peace of mind is considered to be one of the most valuable gifts of the nature. To live peacefully in a society – it is necessary that society should have a terror free environment. Switzerland is considered to be the peaceful most state of the world. Switzerland is a neutralized state, i.e. it has made an agreement with neighbouring states that it shall never go into the war. Switzerland was neutralized by Treaty of Vienna in 1815. The leadership of Switzerland had realized that the leadership could make Switzerland a peaceful one by avoiding going into fight. Though Switzerland is not the member of United Nations Organization yet most of the offices of its several agencies and International Organizations are therein Switzerland. So the status of a peaceful most state by Switzerland has been achieved without fighting.

The economic position of today’s Japan has been achieved without going in to the war. During World War-II, Japan was with the axis and the axis was badly defeated by the Allies. United States of America dropped nuclear device in Japan in Heroshima and Nagasaki causing Japan a horrible defeat. The infrastructure of Japan was badly destroyed during in the war. The economy of Japan effected to a horrible level. It was a right decision made by Japan to not going into war in future after the end of the war. The Japanese constitution which was formulated in 1946 – its chapter-II, Article-9 stated that Japan would not go into war with any other state in future – the same article guaranteed the economic rise of Japan. By doing so Japan didn’t spend monies in arms rather the major focus of the post-World War-II Japan has been the economic development and the wellbeing of their citizens. Today Japan is the third-largest economy of the world. This status has been achieved by Japan by soft means rather going in to fight.

The People’s Republic of China is the member of the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) and also the second-largest economy of the world. The Moa Tuse Dong proclaimed Communist China in 1949, he defeated the Nationalist party’s Chanka-Shek compelling him to go to Quomy and Matsu (today’s Taiwan) – also known as the Republic of China (RoC). In order to defeat the People’s Republic of China (PRC), United States didn’t recognize it, recognized Republic of China (RoC) as the new state and supported the membership of the Republic of China (RoC) as permanent member of the United Nations Security Council (UNSC). United States also provided arms in a huge-scale to the Republic of China (Taiwan) for fight against the People’s Republic of China (PRC) in first and second Taiwan-strait crisis. The communist China (PRC) was dedicated in defending herself and focused in the economic development. Due to the dedication of the leadership of China and its people – China made progress by leaps and bounds. Despite of many efforts made by United States in order to keep PRC away from permanent membership – she couldn’t succeed. At last United States had to surrender before the progress of China, then secretary of state of United States, Henery Kissinger visited People’s Republic of China in 1971 – in the same year People’s Republic of China became the permanent member of United Nations Security Council (UNSC). PRC didn’t go for fight in order to get the Veto power at United Nations rather the progress of China compelled United States to surrender. This is how nations win without fighting.

Economy of a state plays an important role in her influence at international politics – today China is the world’s second-largest economy – the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Communist China is; $ 9,181,204 million, the leadership of Communist China has decided to not to go into war with other

states till the time China achieves its goal on economy grounds. The main focus had been the economic development of the state. The judicious-policies of the leadership and struggle of the Chinese have placed the state among the leading economies of the world and an important player of the international politics. This economic progress has been achieved without fighting by the people of the People’s Republic of China.

The war against legal discrimination – apartheid – has been won by the people of South Africa under the leadership of Nelson Mandella (late), without violence by them. In order to keep the Black away from politics the legal discrimination was made the part of the constitution. The constitution of South Africa had many provisions which were legally discriminating the black community. The black could speak only a specific language called Afrikaan, the separate schools were constructed for them, they were supposed to hang special-cards. As a whole it was a division of human beings which was declaring a specific group superior to the others. The African icon – Nelson Mandella started struggle against this discrimination and his people stood behind him, thus Nelson Mandella and his followers were successful in raising their voice against this discrimination and the international community realizing the apartheid as inhuman, imposed sanctions against the South Africa, these sanctions were so severe that the South Africa had to surrender before the demands of the black which were demanding equal rights for them. During this struggle Nelson Mandella had spent twenty-eight years in prison. At last the black people were succeeded in abrogating those provisions in the constitution which were the discriminatory one. Once black succeeded in gaining the power they thought of taking revenge from the white minority – Nelson Mandella asked its people not to take revenge on white minority whose lanity of crimes makes a history of its own. An unarmed struggle succeeded Nelson Mandella and black to eliminate apartheid from their soil.

It is the era of science and technology the West has excelled the rest in the field of science and technology which is possible only through research and hard work. The development has revolutionized and made this world a global village. A single event which happens in one corner of the world is felt in another corner. The scientific and technological accessories have changed the life-style of the mankind. This is all the miracle of the applied sciences – a man can access everything online in his smart phone or tablet. West is leader in this technology and other nations are dependent upon the West. The West has got this achievement thorough education not through fighting.

Today man has found the signs-of-life in other planets . This achievement has been possible due to the scientific knowledge. Once upon a time it was thought that earth is the only planet where life existed in. The knowledge of the centuries in the field of science enabled man to invent such devices and methods which helped man in exploring the universe. The first dog Laika – the nonhuman hero of the human being unearthed this secret that living-being could explore the space and could return safely. The possibilities of the existence of life have been explored in other planets. The all exploration is the achievement of the science which has been achieved without fighting.

War or fighting is not the solution to any problem because war itself is a problem. The Europe has gained a lot without fighting. In order to conquer each other England and France fought for one hundred sixteen years popularly known as hundred years of the war. The wars during the reign of

Nepolean, the World War-I and the World War-II had disastrous consequences for the Europeans. There were millions of the causalities only in World War-II. After fedding up of the wars Europe decided to gave peace a chance. Instead of fighting with each other the people of Europe thought of working peacefully and with the cooperation. The development which was not achievable through a fighting of centuries – had been achieved within less than a half-century. The European countries transformed into a union known as European Union. This all had been achieved in the second half of the twentieth century. European states which were at draggers drawn once upon a time are no bosom friends. All the work done by European parliament for the interest of Europe today is a victory of the Europeans without fighting.

Human being has no boundaries and restrictions to live peacefully. Euro is the common currency of the European Union, Schengen-visa allows to move freely in any member state. There is no concept of boundary in Europe today, the free trade has helped-a-lot in strengthening the weak economy of the Europeans. The peaceful environment has been helpful in giving attention in studies in different branches of knowledge which has placed Europe in leading continent vis-à-vis education. People around the globe go to Europe to acquire quality-education. For attractive salaries people go to Europe. Europe is the leading continent in the world. This all has been achieved by Europe in post- World War-II era without fighting.

Conclusion

Everything in this world is achievable if peaceful-means are used. The economic rise of Japan and Communist China, the status of the permanent membership of United Nations Security Council of Communist China, the achievement of Switzerland as the peaceful most state of the world the, the South African black community’s victory against apartheid, the transformation of European states in to a Union with many things common in them and the exploration of the universe by science and technology by the countries concerned is all achieved without fighting.

NATIONAL OFFICER ACADEMY ISLAMABAD

Important Essays Outlines

Democracy in Pakistan

The appraisal of last 60 years of democracy

  1. Where does Pakistan stand in terms of democracy?
  2. Is the democracy – an issue of Pakistan or all Muslim countries?
  3. Is the democracy an issue of Pakistan or all third world countries?
  4. Has the democracy with some links with the:

-History

-Culture

-Ideology of people

-Socioeconomic development of people

  • Are the people of Pakistan non democratic?
  • Is the democracy solved the issues of Pakistan?
  • the issue of democracy in Pakistan

-Personalization of politics

-Personality oriented politics 2 The system itself

-Presidential or parliamentary

-The issue of executive legislature and judiciary 3 The issue of execution

-PM

-Cabinet

-Bureaucracy

  • The tug of war between different institutions

-Political

-Military

-Bureaucracy

-Judiciary

  • Election commission and procedure of election.
  • Rigging of polls
  • The making of constitution
  • Amending the constitution
  • Horse trading
  • The politicians

-Background

-Aptitude and capabilities

-Education

-Priorities etc

  1. The conduct of political parties
  2. The elections in political parties
  3. Manifesto of political parties
  4. The role of treasury banks and opposition banks
  5. The interference of military
  6. Provincial/Regionalism/Factionalism.
  7. The pressure groups and their attitude towards bureaucracy
  8. The indigenous and foreign conspiracies (especially the superpowers)
  9. baradari/claim/tribal system in Pakistan
  10. Literacy rate in Pakistan
  11. economic/social development in Pakistan
  12. (Role of mullah/islamists)
  13. Local government system and democracy
  14. Participation of women in democracy
  15. Will we ever be able to bring democracy?
  16. Or democracy will evolve with Pakistan

-Short term measures

-Long tem measures

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Terrorism

Angles/Aspects:

  1. Fact or fiction?
  2. Threat not only for the west but also for the Muslims?
  3. Ploy of west to crush Muslims?

Impacts Social Political Psychological Religious

  1. What is terrorism?
  2. Is it real or so called term?
  3. In modern of the world when did terrorism surface?
  4. Is the terrorism a political battle or a religious battle?
  5. Is the terrorism a war against the injustices of powerful, superpowers, usurpers?
  6. Is the terrorism an attempt to establish the ascendancy of a particular group or class?
  7. Is the terrorism a start of crusades?

-A battle between Islam and Christianity

-A battle between a section of Muslims with a section of Christians or west.

  • Is the terrorism and attempt by some hardcore Islamists groups to resist the centuries old occupation of the west on Islamic territories?
  • Do the terrorist draw their agenda of resistance from the cruelties of the west or from Islam?
  • Will they resort to terrorism even if west stops supporting Israel or India?
  • Will terrorism continue even if west stops exploiting the resources of Muslims?
  • Will the terrorism continue even if west shuns biased policies against Muslim state? Its double policy with regard to democracy, human rights violation, atomic energy etc
  • Genesis of so called terrorist or terrorist groups
    • Al-Qaida
    • Lashkar-e-Tayaba
    • Hezbollah
    • Others
  • Were this group really motivated for the cause of Islam or west was behind the creation of these groups?
  • Did these groups get separated from the agenda of world powers and pursue their own agenda separately?
  • Though the terrorist organizations have two agendas

-The destruction and defeat of America

-The establishment of Muslim or Islamic state.

  1. Are all the terrorist organizations linked with each other?
  2. Do they share agenda with each other?
  3. To what extent they share common agenda and where they get separated.

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  • Do different agencies control different terrorist groups and through different and through different ways influence terrorist groups to achieve their specific goals?
  • is the terrorism
    • Local issue
    • Issue of Middle East
    • Issue of Pak-Afghan
    • Issue of America
    • A global issue
  • Has the terrorism any link with Clash of Civilization?
  • Is the terrorism linked with the faulty policies of America, Pakistan, and Afghanistan in the wake of Russian debacle?
  • has the terrorism any linkage with Great Game?
    • Expansion of Israel
    • Control of energy resources of Middle East
    • Control of resources of Central Asian States
    • Containment of emerging Muslim power if any.
  • Is the terrorism a ploy of western countries to crush Muslim countries especially Pakistan?
  • Why Pakistan to be crushed in the pretext of terrorism

A. Is it linked with us policies about India and china?

  • Are all sort of terrorism linked with us relation to remain a superpower for centuries
  • Is there no other way to remain in the cradle of power except in the name of terrorism?
  • War on terrorism in which context and for whom is fact and for whom and in which context is a fiction
  • Do any countries, especially the Muslims understand the reality of terrorism?
  • If they understand then are they
    • Alive to respond properly
    • Are they prepared or preparing for future battle or exploitation
    • Have they the capacity and capability to realize and rectify the dangerous situation?
    • If a Muslim country has a potential to respond
  • Which country
  • To which extent
  • Will America or western block succeed in the garb of terrorism? If yes to what extend?
  • Will Muslims ever be able to contain/ counter America’s great game?
  • In future will the Muslim governments be at loggerheads with terrorist groups or will cooperate with them at any level?
  • Can they (Muslim countries and terrorist organizations) share a common goal?
  • In the conflict what are implications
    • Will the aspiring superpowers be silent?
    • Will they allow America to do whatever she wants to do in the name of terrorism?
    • Will they cooperate (aspiring superpowers) with Muslim forces? And to what

extent?

  • Irrespective of agenda and objectives, known and unknown, what have been the implications for both Muslims and non-Muslims especially for Pakistan, Afghanistan and America.
  • Implications for America
    • Credibility and neutrality of USA doubtful
    • Alienation in the world of Islam
    • Security threat to its populace at home and abroad
    • Creation of new enemies instead of friends.

-. Even a clarion call for aspiring or emerging superpowers

-. More consciousness among Muslims for preservation of their ideology, resources and identity

  • Alienation of the supporters of America in the Muslim countries
    • Huge expenditure on defense
    • Economic crises in USA
    • Unemployment in USA
    • Political challenges for the government
    • Mushroom of terrorist organizations
  • Implications for Pakistan
  • economic impacts
    • More expenditure on defense
    • The stoppage of FDI
    • The destruction of tourism
    • The destruction of infrastructure
    • Ruination of industry, agriculture in war hit areas
    • Effect on trade
    • Migration of people
    • Economic activity in the area
    • Business of the people.
    • Expenditure on I.D.Ps

XI Expenditure on reconstruction and rehabilitation of people

XII. Stoppage of games: cricket and loss of revenue.

  • Socio-Cultural impacts
    • Health institutions
    • Educational institutions
    • Employment
    • Poverty
    • Festivals
    • Issue of human rights
    • Issue of women rights
    • Art, architecture, literature
    • Health activities, games etc
  • Psychological impacts
    • Anger
    • Frustration
    • Erosion of social relationships
    • Mistrust in community

  • Exploitation
    • Terror
    • Restlessness
    • Nervous tension
    • Drug abuse
    • Crimes
    • Emotional disorder

Angles/ Aspects

  1. Religion of Peace
  2. Islam and terrorism
  3. Islam and west
  4. Challenges to the world of Islam

Islam

  1. Islam-its meaning and message
  2. Background in which Islam dawned in Arabia and its revolutionary impact in bringing peace and prosperity in Arabian peninsula.
  3. Islamic concept of peace with respect to
    1. Human beings,
    1. With respect to different raves,
    1. Religions and
    1. Languages
    1. In peace and war time.
    1. Animals
    1. Crops and trees
  4. Islamic concept of war
    1. Only meant to bring peace

b War not option but compulsion

  • The age of Prophet of Islam and peace
    • Relation with
      • Arabian pagans
  • Co-clan opponents
  • Enemies
  • Christians
  • Jews
    • The war during the reign of prophet and reasons for war
  • Expansion during the reign of caliphs
    • Why is it a objectionable in the eyes of western historians
    • Did the expansion belie the peaceful credentials of Islam
    • Were Muslim armies waging war for:
      • Territory
      • Kingship iii Monetary

iv. Expansion of Islam

  • Were the wars offensive or defensive?
    • Was the Muslim state really threatened when the attack was launched by

Muslims?

  1. Were the Persians and roman empires hurdles in the peaceful

propagation of Islam?

  • Muslim dynasties and peaceful face of Islam
    • Ummayads
    • Abbasiydis

  • Fatimi
    • Usmani
    • Mughal
    • Modern Muslim states
  • Can the acts of Muslim rulers be equated with the concepts of Islam?
  • Can the acts of a Christian ruler be always equated with Christianity?
  • The historical writings of different writers especially some Muslims and generally some non-Muslims and Islamic concept of war and peace
  • Expansion of Turks into the west (Roman Empire) and image of Islam in the eyes of the west
  • Mughals incursions into the subcontinent and image of Islam in the eyes of Hindus
  • Warring factions among Muslims and the peaceful nature of Islam
  • Islamic teaching and the aspects of peaceful life
    • no love for money
    • no love for property
    • love for god
    • the day of judgment
    • namaz
    • zakat
    • haj

i. roza

j sanctity of three months of Islamic calendar k the peaceful sanctuary of Kabbah

  1. When the religion is so peaceful why the Muslims resorted to war even immediately after Islam and throughout later centuries
    1. political
    1. factional
    1. territorial
    1. racial
    1. economic
    1. linguistic

h. conspiracies

I shifting from Khilafat to Malukiyat

  1. When Islam is so peaceful then why the non-Muslims blame it?
    1. fearful of Islam’s revolutionary message
    1. against the religious clergy to be powerful
    1. misunderstanding between religions
    1. biased propaganda
    1. Islam’s earliest wars with Jews and Christians
    1. crusades
    1. Usmani’s incursion into the west
    1. Ummayads incursion into the south west
    1. Opinion of western writers about Islam after the conquest of Constantinople
    1. Spanish propaganda after the fall of Granada
    1. Freedom movements of Muslims when west occupied Muslim lands in 19th, 20th and 21st century

  • Due to biased propaganda of Jews and Christians

m Israel’s creation

n Muslims reaction and biased allegation of west against Muslims o some unscrupulous speeches of some mullahs of islam

  1. A poor defense of Islam
    1. no great scholar among Muslims
    1. poor facility of media
    1. resource issue
    1. non-serious attitude of Muslims

e Muslims at loggerheads with each other

f. sectarianism and factionalism

  • low literacy rate among Muslims
  • influence of traditional mullahs
  • away from modern sciences
  • why Islam has been equated with terrorism
    • Muslim power eclipsed-west encroached upon Muslim territories
    • Muslim woke up for restoration of lost glory
    • their spirit of freedom was equated generally with terrorism
    • Israel’s occupation of Palestine
    • India’s occupation of Kashmir
    • USSR occupation of Afghanistan
    • USA and UK interference in Iran and Central Asia
    • First Gulf War against Iraq
    • Iraq’s second occupation

j West undue support to India and Israel

  • Mujahids(freedom fighters) emerged
  • superpowers threw their agents exploited them against USSR
  • Mujahid were trained, connected throughout the world turned against America
  • a new challenge in the name of Clash of Civilizations was concocted (America started to think who can challenge west after USSR)
  • world trade center and Muslims (in Islam different sections have always been fighting for their ideology)
  • Solution for Muslims
    • peaceful

b war or attacks

  • Americas attack on Iraq and Afghanistan
    • frustration even among peaceful Muslims
    • hard response of Mujahids to US

c this is where terrorism emerged and was equated with Islam

  • terrorist directed the attacks:
    • against USA ii its interest
  • its allies (both Muslims and non-Muslims)
  • mujahid have two agendas

a to defeat the USA and its allies b to establish an Islamic state

c. Irrespective of injunctions of Islam they use every possible method of resistance against USA and its allies whether it is human or not(here it is needed to understand the injunctions of Islam and the ways and means of terrorists/mujahids. The western world is at fault. They must differentiate)

to defeat America and its allies

.                       a. mujahid might be playing at the hands of some agency known or unknown to them

b in the garb of mujahids there might be criminals in order to save their skin, the criminals have ranked themselves with the mujahid.

c. mujahids are terrorists being the deficient in the knowledge of Islam or induced were whatever they want to do in the name of Islam. It is also creating a bad name for Islam

  • They want to establish Islamic state
    • are they really conversant in the teachings of Islam? b do the great scholars of Islam support them?
  • do the masses support them?
  • in the present Muslim world the laws being practiced are un-Islamic? e for establishing an Islamic state can they kill their brother Muslims and

fellow human beings?

f. what kind of state they want to establish? g will it cater to the needs of modern times?

h. are all the Muslims support the terrorist or mujahids?

I in labeling all the Muslims instead of a few mujahids what does the west

want?

J does west really believe in clash of Islam and the west?

  • is the response of west in the name of freedom of thought and

expression toward Muslims responsible(cartoon controversy, books)

  • can Islam not accommodate i different thoughts

ii different systems of government iii different races

iv different stages of belief v different languages

vi different clans vii different colors

  • Can the Islam not liberate the diversified world?
  • Islam, west and future of mankind

24 Islam’s true spirit of peace is the destiny of future mankind

Aspect: Role of media in society

Media

  1. What is media?
  2. Media in old days its ways and objectives
  3. Growth of media corresponding with the growth of society
  4. Quantum shift of media from oral to written with the discovery of print media
  5. A glimpse of different civilizations and media
  6. When the tribes merged into city states; the role of media also changed
  7. The media ups and downs
    1. the voice of the rich and influential people
    1. the voice of rulers/ kings
  8. With the emergence of democracy what was the changed crept into the role of media
  9. Modern world media and democracy
  10. Where the democracy is suspended the role of media is changed accordingly mostly due to pressure of government (dictators)
  11. Development of media renaissance, development and science
  12. Societies developed, developing and underdeveloped vis-a-vis the role and development of media
  13. When does media become the tool of change
  14. Is the media really influential enough to bring the change in society?
  15. What are the factors which make the media influential  16 which section of society does the media influence gravely

a upper b lower c middle

17 the ways and means which the media employ or can employ for bringing the change in society

  1. different sort of programs
  2. news c, reports
  3. again and again coverage
  4. discussions
  5. dialogues
  6. stories
  7. satirical programs j cartoons
  8. using specific words or language
  9. the role of anchorperson
  10. dramas
  11. documentaries
  12. dressing
  13. The areas in which media can bring change
    1. political b social

c religious d cultural

h economic

I scientific/educational

  1. Media and political change
    1. effecting different decisions of the government
    1. favoring any one institution of the government
    1. governments domestic and foreign policies
    1. governments developmental projects

h favoring different sections of society over each other I can influence treasury and opposition benches

J may influence legislation

K may influence one party or other one L may influence canvassing and voting

M may provide food for thought for government N may favor any system of the government

O may favor left wing or right wing parties

P may favor liberal, conservative or secular parties

  • Is the media always neutral and objective in bringing political change?
  • What are the forces which determine the policy of the media——different channels/newspapers owned by different owners with different ideologies, with different sources of funding?
  • Different agencies may also find their agents in media
  • world powers —- media —- domestic political change and foreign political change
  • To what extent world powers are befooled and guided by media and its global political impacts
  • Can we make the media really neutral? the portrayer of only the truth? If yes then how?

26 media and social change

a behavior of the people

b relationship among the people

  • media and health
  • consciousness about different diseases
  • advertisement f education

g quality of education

h different educational movements of the world i syllabus

j the situation of educational institutions k university college school

l education in rural areas m education in jail

  • education for special people
  • Education of women

p issues of women and media q Education

r economic empowerment s domestic violence

t gender biasness

u. media in the wake of natural disasters 27 moral issues and media

a decency

  • honesty
  • integrity
  • diligence
  • discipline
  • truth
  • respect
  • development of social values
  • cleanliness

j forbearance and tolerance  k harmony between different

I factions Ii races Iii sects

Iv linguistic groups

  • to what extent media does promote social change and in which context
  • is the change natural, induced or imposed?
  • globalization/social change and role of media
  • Different group’s foreign and indigenous media and social change and reaction of society
  • Religious change and media
    • discussion among different divine religions
    • through discussion among different religions development of understanding

c to lessen the friction among different religions- Islam Christianity Judaism and Hinduism

d. through religion to bring the world together in the wake of globalization e intra-religious harmony

f. religious duties and special programs on media j death and birth anniversaries of religious figures

  • religion modernity and media
  • blind religious beliefs and role of media
  • true picture of religion and media
  • concepts and practices
  • role of so called mullahs/Sufis

p can media be not biased in the matter of religion?

  • Cultural change and media
    • dress
    • diet

c different festivals d art

e music

f architecture g literature

h traditional culture vis-a-vis modern culture I culture media and synthesis

  • Media and economic change
    • advertisement
    • business opportunity
    • fashion industry d chemical industry e housing industry f food industry
  • Media and public opinion
  • To what extent media can bring the change in the life personal and social of an individual
  • Media sensational news and individual of a society a children

b youth c old

d. women

e professionals

  • media- a serious thing or an entertainment or pleasure time
  • Here is the media pushing the world- towards construction or destruction
  • Are we mere changeable entities before media or thinking and responding beings in light of our own consciousness?
  • Media in 21st century

42 to what extent can we rely on media for secure peaceful and prosperous mankind

  1. Awareness in public

Education in Pakistan

  • No better utilization of Education (unemployment)
  • Poverty and education
  • Different concepts of education prevailing in people
  • Different system of education
    • English , A level, O level
    • Urdu, public schools
    • Arabic, Madrassah
  • Difference level – for different section of population – and hence different utility
  • Highest opportunities for advancement (in competition) for English school students.
  • Urdu-mostly low scale jobs (Can’t get their children educated from highest institutions

especially English medium-hence a cycle continues.

  • Poor and middle class children (lower stature)
  • Quality of education in Urdu medium
    • Number of schools
    • Number of teachers
    • Syllabus
    • Examination
    • Quality of teachers
    • Mostly children have to work after schools.
    • Low capacity to compete
    • No modern technology of teaching
    • Teachers iron rod
    • Schools away –children in heat or cold fall sick.
    • High rate of drop out
    • Bad company – spend most of time outside the home.
    • People don’t send their children to schools, prefer to have them engaged in work

for some earning for their large families.

  • Fee, books, uniform shoes etc.
    • No supervision at home for school work.
    • Poor health of the students hence study is affected.
  • Madrassah’s
    • Basically trained in religious studies
    • Achronistic syllabus
    • No scientific knowledge
    • No knowledge of English language
    • Poor or no use and awareness of modern technology
    • Just trained for Namaz, Nikkah or Jinnaza
    • Dependent upon the source of funding
    • Hijacked by different donators, sponsoring machines of their ideology
    • Myopic views of life and world
    • No integration of students in normal educational system of the country

  • The poorest people in the Madaressah.
    • Jihadi culture of Madressahs
    • Sectarianism in Madrassah
  • English medium institutes
    • Not affordable for common people
    • For upper classes
    • Modern syllabus
    • Different techniques for teaching the students
    • Create competition among the students
    • English medium culture
    • Mushroom of English medium schools from last two decades
    • Issue of space
    • Charge high fee
  • Issues of Syllabi
    • Not tuned with time
    • According to the level of students
    • How is it design
    • The method, procedure and time period to revise the syllabus
    • Members of board who revise syllabus
  • Educationist
  • Academicians
  • |Medium of Instruction
  • Mother tongue
  • Urdu c\) English
    • Which is best?
    • To which level the teaching in mother tongue is better and where we should turn towards urdu or English?
    • Comparison with other countries
    • Serious study and debate require
  1. Issues of examination and evaluation
    1. What should be the ways of evaluation
    1. Annual system
    1. Semester system
    1. Objective or subjective questions
    1. \Or mix of both
    1. If mixture what should be the percentage of objective and subjective questions
    1. The system of checking the papers
    1. Computerized checking
    1. Examiners
  2. Arbitrary
  3. Special guideline and training for checking
  4. Issues of science subjects

  • Quantity and quality of teachers
    • Quantity and quality of labs
    • Availability of fund
    • Availability of equipments and chemicals
    • Availability of electricity
    • Culture of experimentation
    • Traditional concept of people about science
  • Issues of college education
    • Number of colleges as per population
    • Number of lecturers as per students
    • Choice of bright students
  • Pre-medical
  • Pre-engineering
    • Social sciences second grade discipline
    • Strikes
    • Organizations
    • Healthy activities
  • Literary
  • Cultural
  • Sports
    • Issues of hostel for ruler students
    • Issues of fee
  • Issues of university education
    • Syllabus
    • Research
    • Funding
    • Staff
    • Politics in university
    • Political and religious organizations
    • Mashroom of universities but quality?
  • Issues of Research
    • Topics for research
    • Research culture
    • Supervisor
    • Funding
    • Resources for research
    • Laboratories
    • Thesis
    • Piracies
    • Research and linkage with industry
    • Modern research techniques
    • HEC
    • Foreign and indigenous scholarship programme – and appraisal.
  • Issues of education of women

  • Number of institutes for women
    • Economic barriers
    • Cultural barriers
    • Insecurity
    • Behavior of parents especially in ruler areas
    • Women’s preferred professions
  • Education
  • Medical
    • Issues of coeducation
    • End of scope of education after marriage
    • Loss of Govt investment
    • Different Islamic groups and education of women in Pakistan
  • Policies of Government
    • Fund allocation
    • Educational policies
    • Establishment of new universities and research institutes
    • Parha-Likha Punjab
    • Punjab educational foundation
    • Teachers on contract
    • Free books
    • Stipends for girls
    • Refreshment: milk and biscuits
    • Special attention towards girls education
    • Public private partnership
    • Different monitoring system
    • Introduction of tenure track system
  • Issues of teachers
    • Low salary
    • Poor facilities

a) Accommodation transport

  • No carrier security
    • Political interference in transfer posting
    • Low promotions
    • Absenteeism
    • Rough behavior of teacher with students
    • Poor knowledge of subjects
    • No proper evaluation of students
    • Traditional methods of teaching
    • No refreshers courses during the service
  • Why do as a nation we not give highest value to education
  • When a religion stresses on need of education, why do we shun from education
  • Who are responsible for sorrow state of education?
  • Educationist
  • Institutions

  • Administrators
  • Politicians
  • Why poor funding for education?
  • Side by side with scientific and social sciences- is there no need for technical

education

  • Why least attention towards Technical and Vocational education
  • Without Education can we progress
  • Economically
  • Socially
  • Politically
  • Religiously
  • Where do we stand educationally with respect to the rest of the world?
  • The ways to promote education in Pakistan
  • New challenges and education
  • Terrorism
  • Political chaos
  • Sectarianism
  • Global warming
  • Factionalism
  • Future of education in Pakistan
  • Conclusion

An Institutional Graveyard

THERE is good news from Islamabad. Some 80 potential donors met in the city and pledged over $6 billion to help the country recover from the ravages of the earthquake of October 8. Most of the funds raised are to be used to rehabilitate the more than three million people left homeless and without economic assets. If money was the only constraint, this would spell the end of the country’s travails. But that, unfortunately, is not the case.

Faced with this enormous burden to reconstruct an economy on which some 10 million people depend, the Pakistani state will also need to rebuild itself. Over the last 60 years, the state has been weakened to the point that it barely functions.

In the last couple of columns, I have drawn comparisons between the Indian

and Pakistani situations to make the point that there are things about India that gives it enormous advantage over Pakistan in many fields. This is particularly the case in the effort by the two countries to develop and modernize. India will succeed in spite of the fact that some of the economic and social problems it faces are more serious than those that we face. After all, India is much more crowded than Pakistan.

With some 15 to 20 per cent of the world’s poor, the burden of poverty it carries is also much heavier. There is great inequality not just among its more than one billion people. Some of the Indian states in the country’s north and east have a per capita income that is one-fourth of the average achieved by some of those in the west and south. There are serious social and political problems in the country that the various systems in play are barely able to handle.

In many parts of the country, women still face great discrimination. Wife burning to punish young women for not bringing sufficient dowry for the groom’s household is sufficiently common to worry sociologists and social workers. The system of roads, railways, bridges and ports is straining under the impact of a rapidly growing economy. India has done even less than Pakistan to improve the physical infrastructure it  inherited from the British. The Indian bureaucrat, in spite of all the investment the country has made in its fabled Institutions of Management, continues to believe that his job is to obstruct rather than to facilitate. And yet, India now has the reputation of a country that works; Pakistan that of a country poised on the edge of an abyss.

There are many reasons for this of which I count four as being really important. The Indians do a much better job of representing themselves outside the country than we do.

This helps to bring in foreign capital, technology and management expertise. They have

also invested much more — and much more intelligently than we have done — in  creating a highly skilled and well informed work force. I commented on these contributors to India’s growth in last week’s article. Today I will write about one other difference between the two countries — a difference that gives India a better chance of succeeding than Pakistan in the new global economic and political order.

India today has a much stronger institutional base than we do. Over the last half century

— certainly after the assumption of power in 1971 by Zulfikar Ali Bhutto — Pakistan has systematically destroyed the institutions it inherited from the British Raj. India did the opposite by significantly improving upon its institutional inheritance.

In the institutional graveyard we find in Pakistan, tombstones carry such names as the civil administration and the system of governance; the judicial and legal systems; political parties, and the political system; the systems for formulating and implementing economic and social strategies; colleges, universities and the system of education.

Two institutional structures that have survived are the military and the press, the latter because of the relative tolerance displayed by a number of recent administrations, especially the current one. However, I will suggest in a later article that a free press without a political system that represents all segments of the people cannot do its job adequately. It can only point out the blemishes that exist in society but cannot correct them.

Why have we created this graveyard of institutions?

The question has been asked and answered several times. Unlike leaders and leadership groups in India, those who have ruled Pakistan came to believe that the institutions that were in place stood in the way of their ability to reach their goals. Some of the time the goals were personal enrichment or concentration of power in a single pair of hands.

Even when the rulers’ aim was to improve the welfare of common citizens, most institutions were regarded as bumps in the road to be traversed.

The process of institutional decay began the moment Pakistan gained independence. The country’s first generation of rulers did not have a firm political base. Not prepared to trust the masses, it bypassed them. Thus began the tradition of rule without consultation, discourse or representation. At the same time, the urgent need to rehabilitate and resettle millions of refugees who had arrived from India led to the use of unconstrained state power. Evacuee property — the assets left by the departing Hindus and Sikhs — was disposed off at the will of administrators whose actions could not be easily questioned in the courts. The seeds of corruption that was to mar

the Pakistani landscape in the decade of the 1990s were, in fact, planted in the soil immediately after the country was founded.

The first seven years of President Ayub Khan’s administration were committed to the economic development of the country, a goal that was achieved with considerable fanfare at home and celebration abroad. For some time, Pakistan was feted as the model of development.

Nonetheless, Pakistan’s first military ruler did not appreciate the important point that the process he had begun could not be sustained without a functioning judicial system, representative politics and freedom of expression.

In this approach he was encouraged by a number of development theorists who believed at that time that strong military governments led ably by visionary leaders could deliver their countries from economic and social backwardness. There was not much point in consulting the people with the help of a representative system of government or giving them voice with the help of a free press. Even an independent judicial system was seen as obstructing the path to rapid economic development.

Ayub Khan came down hard on the judicial system, on the development of political parties, on developing a representative system of government, and on the press. On the other hand, he developed a sound system of economic planning and management, a local government structure that brought the state closer to the people and an educational system that began to improve the level of human development. Had he not suppressed the first set of institutions he and his government would not have fallen so easily to the predatory designs of an ambitious general who was much less well  equipped to govern.

Ayub Khan would not have succumbed had he allowed the press to freely report on some of the economic tensions that were caused by his model of development, had he put in place a political system that could find relief for those who felt that they had been left behind by the fast pace towards reaching economic goals that were once believed to be unachievable, had he permitted the judges and the judicial system to keep the fast moving economic and social systems within legal bounds. Ultimately, the institutions he did not build, or those that he did not develop, destroyed those he had created with tender loving care.

The destruction of institutions continued under Ayub Khan’s successors, General Yahya Khan and Zulfikar Ali Bhutto. The two together put away the system of bureaucratic management. That system may have had many faults but it also attracted high quality human resource to its ranks and provided reasonably good governance. It worked well in the area of economic management. And Bhutto’s heavy hand fell on the system of education, bringing politics into college and university campuses. Bhutto also continued the Ayubian practice of suppressing the freedom of expression and manipulating  political processes to achieve personal goals.

Once again, as had happened to Ayub Khan and Yahya Khan before him, the institutions

that could have saved him from being dislodged by the military were simply absent when they could have served a useful purpose for him. In fact, tragically, Bhutto was sent to the gallows by an institution — the judiciary — that he had himself subverted.

President Ziaul Haq continued to show not only the same disdain for institution-building that was shown by his predecessors. He went one step further and began to use the state to bring religion into politics, the economy and society. In doing so, Zia was not responding to public demand: he, like some of his predecessors, was putting in place what he thought the people needed or should require.

Zia’s Islamization programme left a legacy with which the country is still trying to come to terms. While bringing religion into many spheres of public life, the Zia administration did practically nothing to resurrect the institutions without which societies simply   cannot develop. The political system remained largely unrepresentative, political   parties continued to be manipulated to serve the ruling master, the judiciary was forced into submission and the legal system atrophied.

Eleven years of civilian rule interspersed with five general elections underscored one important point about institutional development: that periodic reference to the people, without the support of institutions, is not a recipe for the development of a representative form of government. The two mainstream political parties that were given the opportunity to govern made no effort to prepare the ground for erecting a permanent structure of governance in which people would openly participate. That had been accomplished in India; given the chance once again, the Pakistani leaders let the country down once more. Theirs was total failure which once again encouraged the military to step in.

My assertion in the first article of the present series that the military takeover saved the country from plunging into a political and economic abyss has been contested by some of my friends who were very active in politics at that time. I continue to believe that a break was needed in the trajectory the country was pursuing at that time. But the question is whether progress has been made since October 12, 1999.

The answer has to be in the negative. Once again there is a belief that institutions are not important; what are needed are the leader’s goodwill, determination and vision. Under President Pervez Musharraf there has been no progress in terms of developing civilian institutions, improving the state of the judiciary, strengthening the legal  system, developing the capacity to do strategic thinking in economic affairs, forcing the development of political parties, and laying down rules for succession. And by requiring the military to enter not only politics but also many civilian activities, he may have hurt the one institution that had survived the general decay in the country’s institutional foundation.

Is      Democracy      is      the      Best      Form      of Government      System?

For the past 2500 years this question has been tossed up. Some said rule of one, others preferred rule of few, while a third party was of the view that neither rule of one nor of few but rule of majority is good. In this discussion, it would appear later that democracy is either the most hated or the most admired form of government. Rationally speaking, democracy, like every other system of governance, has its seamy side. That it has becoming more an end in itself than a means to attaining such ends as: freedom equality, rule of law and justice which are its underlying values without which democracy loses its meaning. Unless accompanied by its underlying values democracy is indistinguishable from any other system of governance and is as bad as any other form of government could be. A dictator may rule democratically, and a democratic government could be tyrannical and oppressive. It is therefore the content, which makes democracy the most admirable form of government, rather than the form by which Voltaire meant when he said that: it makes no difference to a poor man whether he is devoured by a lion or hundred rats.

It is perhaps better to begin with definitions. Abraham Lincoln rendered a definition of democracy in these words: a government of the people, by the people, and for the people. By democracy it is meant that people should rule themselves; or rule of people. Moreover democracy is a form of government in which members are elected to rule by the consent of people and are accountable to people. Their rule is not arbitrary but they have to conduct their business in accordance with the rules enacted in constitution. This document which is called constitution defines fundamental rights of people besides provides the framework through which government is to run the affairs of state. However if government acts in contravention with the rules people have inherent right to topple such      a      government      and      institute      a      new      one      in      its      place.

The origin of democracy lies in the Athenian democracy of which Pericles, the leader of democracy in Athens, boasted that; here, there is the government in which every citizen renders his contribution however little it may be. But happy days of Athenian democracy did not last long in the face of militaristic Spartans who defeated Athens in Peloponnesian war. Socrates who witnessed all these developments was quick to attribute failure to democracy which according to him was riddled with factionalism, corruption and nepotism. This ultimately brought doom to Athens. Henceforth the aging philosopher developed a particular contempt for democracy and declared it the worst form of government. In a democracy, he says, pity party interests precede those of the national interests. It seems that he did not see security in numbers and declared that only

knowledge has claim to power. When the War was finally over the democracy which he condemned                           voted                            him                           to                          death.

Plato the faithful student of Socrates inherited his master’s contempt for democracy and wrote the Republic to prove that tyranny of Philosopher King is better than democracy, by declaring that he went to other extreme: totalitarianism. However Socrates’ and Plato’s hatred of democracy had some measures of truth in it. The Athenian democracy was pervaded by corruption, factionalism and pity party interests claimed precedence over the national interests. These were the reasons which caused Plato and Socrates to despise democracy. Nevertheless, their contempt for democracy reflected their hatred of national and regional politics of that time. To a large extent their criticism is not based on rational grounds, although the democracy was not without its faults but yet it was the best form of government for which Greeks developed great love and respect. Because it guaranteed  freedom  of  thought  and   expression   which   Greeks   boasted   of, and therefore regarded all other civilizations as barbaric. Even the giant Persians were looked down as uncivilized nation. The proof of this is the fact that Plato’s theory of Philosopher king was received rather with contempt by the freedom loving Greeks who regarded it as alien and barbaric. This was precisely the reason which forced Plato to write Laws and Statesman in which Law would be supreme and it was the second best ideal                           state                                     of     Plato.

For Aristotle the chief problem lies in the irreconcilable conflict between freedom and authority. He was much closer to liberal democracy but stood diametrically opposed to his master’s theory of Philosopher King and regarded it as opposed to the frailties of human nature. The conflict between freedom and authority was the actual task which possessed him the most, and which culminated in the form of constitutional government; be it democracy provided majority presents tasks and only the experts render execution and implementation of those tasks. Implicitly this was democracy at its best. Expounder of constitutionalism Aristotle did not contend his master’s words that only knowledge has claim                      to                                                                  power.

From Greeks down to Dark and Middle ages democracy remained a ray of hope for the distressed. It was regarded as an antidote to oppressive and despotic rule. It is an effective weapon of all freedom loving nations to fight tyranny. In Europe, the Age of Reason renewed the faith of people in democratic rule;therefore masses challenged the traditional and ancient institutions which stifled freedom of people. It was this renewed conviction that helped abolishing feudalism thereby paving the way for a just system of governance.  The  Glorious  Revolution  in  England  marked  the  beginning  of  the

democratic  age.  It  established  representative  government  through  sovereignty  of parliament.           The        other        Europeans          would         follow         the        suit         later.

Nonetheless the followers of Plato still haunted the democratic forces. They opposed and mocked the people who were fighting for democracy and rule of law. Thomas Hobbes was the first among them to oppose any changes in the existing governmental system which kept people under perpetual slavery. However it would be clear by the fact that Hobbes criticism of peoples rule stemmed from his emotional attachment to the unity of England. Since the civilwar plagued England before the revolution. Hobbes believed that a strong hand is needed to subdue the uprising and therefore preached the divine right of kings to rule. On the other hand stood John Locke whose ideals were embedded in democratic values ; he supported the revolution which culminated in the sovereignty of parliament.

The propounder of modern absolutism Machiavelli confronted similar issues in his home land Italy where Papacy rule crippled the growth of society and kept people under perpetual subordination. Besides It was in able to defend Italy against foreign aggression. His opposition to democracy found expression in his book the Prince. Prince according to him would be instrumental in restoring peace and glory to Italy and defend it against any foreign intrusions.  The integrity of Italy,  It seems,  was sacred to him and thus he equipped his prince with unbridled powers to safeguard that. However close observation would reveal that his philosophy of absolutism is a product of particular circumstances which confronted Italy during that time and to overcome them seems his immediate concern.    He    might    have    renounced    it    had    he    lived    to    see    Hitler.

It is an interesting question that what possessed people of Europe to stand against well equipped oppressive regimes and what attracted them to seek salvation in democracy. Masses suffered at the hands of religious and temporal rulers; the latter were in alliance. Besides, economic exploitation and infliction of tyrannical rule left people to virtual slavery. Submission to such rule anymore was death on the other hand democracy offered freedom and equality for which the people of Europe yearned. Who would ignore such presents. It was this reason that democracy found ready appeal among the masses who rose and fought for it. The American and French Revolution were the culmination of people’s quest for a free world where law, not the discretion of kings, would rule. The independence of America and the subsequent enactment of its constitution which ensured freedom, equality and rule of law, marked the beginning of a new age in the history of democracy.

However it is an other question that the minority Negroes were suppressed in a country

whose constitution defined: “all people created as equal”. It is this question the possibility of which confirmed that a democratic regime could also be oppressive and tyrannical. Nonetheless the white majority was never short of arguments and was quick to justify it; that when constitution speaks of equality it meant equality of all whites. It was paradoxical. Here Rousseau’s theory of General Will was in work practically simultaneously confirming the doubts of Voltaire that General will or Majority rule would tend to be more oppressive to dissenting minority. The issue which questioned the primacy     of     democracy     as     being     an     ideal     form     of     government.

These were the inherent weaknesses in democratic system which gave rise to Communist manifesto: classless society. And it was the age of Hegel, the spiritual father of Karl Marx, who was pleading his case of Dialectical Theory; thesis, antithesis, synthesis, in Europe. The theory, through which Karl Marx was to prove later the doom of democracy. Hegel suggested that every tendency breeds its antithesis at the very moment it is born. The idea he applied to feudalism as thesis, democracy as its antithesis and communism which Karl Marx was to declare later as synthesis; the final destiny of humanity, and the best system of governance. Communists were quick to attack capitalist democracy which according to them encourages economic exploitation of working class by industrialists; hence effecting concentration of wealth in to few hands. Which causes socio economic imbalance in society . However communists fail to prove that under communism there will be no such exploitation and masses would suffer less. It is at least implicit in the communist manifesto. Their aim it seems was to bring one party, which they called Proletariat, into power It will decide the destiny of ruled. None the less a dictatorship.

At least democracy offers safer options. However bad, democracy is better than dictatorship, said someone .But the vexing issue was one that of sub-ordination  of minority at the hands of majority in democratic system . To reconcile these two opposing tendencies was the task that occupied the attention of John Stuart Mill, the father of Neo-liberalism. Who said that it is not necessary that a popular government should also be a liberal government. Contradicting his own statement our philosopher says that threat to democracy is not from government but from a majority that is intolerant of diversity and uses its numbers to repress the minority. Therefore behind every liberal government there should be a liberal society. Repression of black population in America and South Africa may be viewed in this paradigm. Not to democracy but tyranny may be attributed  to                                           an                         intolerant             society.

One  of  the  peculiarities  of  democratic  system  is  that  it  affords  an  opportunity  for resolving issues through negotiations. It was through this means that Martin Luther King

was successful in his struggle against segregation against the blacks in America. The firm belief in the democracy offered blacks an equal status in the society that crippled their freedom formerly. However struggle is sine qua non for achieving ideals ingrained in democratic values. “ Privileged class never gives up its privileges, you have to fight for them,”                           says                                       Martin                        Luther                           King.

Similarly, the case of repression by the minority Whites against the majority blacks in South Africa reflected the same dilemma of an intolerant society. Nelson Mandela the leader of Blacks understood the perils if the majority Blacks came into power; the danger was that of suppression of the minority Whites. Therefore the struggle he launched against Apartheid ( a system of laws which stifled the freedom of the Blacks) was directed against the system and institutions which chained the Blacks. It was never against the Whites. Mandela acknowledged that, that he was laying grounds for mutual co-existence between whites and Blacks after the freedom was won. Moreover democracy helped South Africa achieving social, political and economic cohesion. On the Contrary, Communist Revolution hardly achieved desired results. The imposition of dictatorship soon after the fall of Czar regime resulted only in the national disintegration ones the cold    war                                                  was                                           over.

In the same way the argument that democracy is a success in one society and its failure in other is not enough to prove that democracy is not the ideal form of government. To substantiate it the critics offer examples of third world democratic countries such as Pakistan. The logical answer to the criticism is that for a liberal democracy to succeed there should be a liberal society. The more a society is liberal the greater are the chances of democracy to succeed. The words of Plato may be relevant when he said: unless we have better men we could not have better society or state. For a better democracy there must be a better society. Unless it is done society can not avail itself the   benefits a                              democratic     system        has          to    offer.

As it has frequently appeared in the course of discussion that democracy is not an end itself rather is a means to achieve ends which are ingrained in the democratic values such as; freedom equality and rule of law. However the Politics of Modern Times  have observed a paradigm shift from ends to means, the latter have become more important to popular governments. Democracy is promoted but liberty is not Says Fareed Zakria in his book the Future of Freedom. Similarly election is the first step forward to achieving the ends in constitutional liberalism, and is an integral part therefore of any democratic system. Viewed in any other perspective it has no meaning of its own. Unfortunately, political parties lay greater emphasis on the election campaigns and spend heavily to

Text Box: secure victory but pay little attention to the goals set for a democratic government to achieve. Secondly the growth of illiberal tendencies in democratic world should be a greater cause of concern for the modern societies. The greater threat today to democracy is from illiberal democracy. Its success depends largely upon the elimination of illiberal practices which stifle freedom of society. To put it in a nutshell, if society is to avail what democracy has to offer, it must direct its energies to fight illiberal democracy. And in doing that lays the salvation of humanity. Otherwise ruin is at hand amidst Nuclear world

Balochistan Crisis

Essay

Situated in the southwest of the country, and spread over 347,190 sq km, the province of Balochistan comprises 43% of Pakistan’s territory. In the west it has common borders with Iran and in the northwest with Afghanistan. In the south, Balochistan has a long coastline on the Arabian Sea. Greater part of Balochistan is mountainous, although there are some plains and desert areas also. The terrain is generally barren and rugged. The land of Balochistan is rich in mineral resources. Apart from gas, it holds deposits of coal, copper, silver, gold, platinum, aluminum and uranium. It is also said to possess oil in substantial quantities.

Balochistan has an estimated population of 7,000,000, (according to the census of 1998 it was nearly 6,511,000) which comes to about 4½ % of the total population of the country.

A little over half of this population is ethnically Baloch. The second largest ethnic

group in Balochistan is that of the Pashtuns, which has concentration in the northern part of the province and along its border with Afghanistan. Nearly 70% of the total Balochi population lives in Balochistan and other provinces of Pakistan, whereas about 20% inhabits the southeastern Iran or what is Irani Balochistan. There is a considerable population of the Balochis in Afghanistan also.

The Balochis have preserved their ancient tribal structure. Each tribe or tuman has its chief and consists of several clans. Generally, the attachment to the tumandar i.e., the tribal chief is very strong and the Balochis blindly follow him.

The prominent Balochi tribes in Pakistan are Mengal, Marri, Bugti, Mohammad Hasni, Zehri, Bizenjo and Raisani. Differences between tribes and clans are not uncommon.

Describing the lifestyle of the Balochi people, Encyclopedia Britannica observes:

“The Balochis are traditionally nomads, but settled agricultural existence is becoming more common; every chief has a fixed residence. The villages are collection of mud or stone huts; on the hills, enclosures of rough stone walls are covered with matting to serve as temporary habitations. The Balochis raise camels, cattle, sheep and goats, and engage in carpet making and embroidery. Their agricultural methods are primitive.”

In 1952, the States of Balochistan       Kalat, Mekran, Kharan and Las Bela    were permitted to form ‘The Balochistan States’ Union’.

In 1955, these States were made a part of the ‘One Unit’ or the single province of West Pakistan to facilitate the framing of a constitution on the basis of the principle of ‘parity’ between the two wings of the country. But by mid 1957 it became apparent that the political system established under the Constitution of 1956 was not likely to survive.

Anticipating the break-up of the ‘One Unit’, it is alleged, the Khan of Kalat organized a rebellion to secede from Pakistan. On 6 October 1958, under the order of President Iskandar Mirza, Pakistan Army took control of the Kalat Palace and arrested the Khan on

the charges of sedition. Another version is that it was the result of a plot hatched by Iskandar Mirza who wanted one more justification for imposing martial law.

He had encouraged the Khan to demand restoration of his state, and the Khan fell into the trap. On 7 October, Iskandar Mirza imposed martial law on the country, and on 27 October 1958, the Chief Martial Law Administrator, General Mohammad Ayub Khan, removed Mirza as the president to assume full authority.

The arrest of the Khan led to disturbances in some parts of Balochistan that continued for about a year. It was during these disturbances that the sad episode related to Nauroz Khan, one of the Khan’s Sardars, occurred leaving lasting scars on the Balochi psyche.

After fighting for several months, Nauroz Khan agreed to surrender to the government of Pakistan.

It is claimed that his surrender was secured through ‘etabar’ or oath on the Holy Quran. But instead of given amnesty by the government, he and his companions were tried in a military court and convicted. The government rejected their mercy petitions and seven of them were hanged. This episode made Nauroz Khan a hero in the Baloch folk-lore and the government of Pakistan untrustworthy in their eyes. The Khan of Kalat was subsequently forgiven and freed.

Although the Marris were radicalized during the 1960s, which resulted in some serious problems in 1962, the next major “insurgency” in Balochistan surfaced in 1973. Under Yahya Khan’s martial law, ‘One Unit’ was abolished and an integrated province of Balochistan, comprising former Balochistan States and directly governed

Balochistan territory, was created on 1 July 1970. In the General Elections of December 1970, the National Awami Party (NAP) and Jamiat-ul Ulema-i-Islam (JUI) secured majority of seats in the Balochistan Provincial Assembly. After the traumatic events of 1971, which delayed the transfer of power, they formed their coalition government in Balochistan under the Interim Constitution of 1972.

This government, in which Sardar Attaullah Khan Mengal was the Chief Minister and Ghaus Bakhsh Bizenjo the Governor, was dismissed by the federal government in less than a year on the charges that it was receiving arms from foreign countries and preparing for rebellion or secession. Before the dismissal of the Balochistan government, arms and ammunition, allegedly meant for supply to Baloch separatists, were discovered in a raid on the Iraqi Embassy.

The actual reasons for dismissal of the NAP-JUI government were many: President Zulfikar Ali Bhutto (he was not then Prime Minister) was not prepared to let the provincial government headed by the opposition parties function and pursue a separate agenda, the military establishment had suspicions about the NAP due to the past affiliation of many of its leaders with the Congress, their alleged links with India and the Soviet Union and their association with the ‘Pakhtunistan’ movement. The Shah of Iran did not like the democratic institutions to flourish in Pakistani Balochistan for that had the potentials to destabilize Iranian Balochistan; and he also pressed Bhutto to act.

As a result of the dismissal of popularly elected government, an unprecedented uprising

took place in Balochistan in which the Marris were in the forefront and Sher Mohammad Marri became a legendary figure. The casualties on the sides of the rebels and the government troops were in thousands. Reportedly air power was also used and the insurgents had to withdraw to the mountains from where they conducted guerrilla warfare.

Ironically, Sardar Akbar Bugti, the tumandar of the Bugti tribe, and Ahmad Yar Khan, the Khan of Kalat, were on the side of the federal government under Bhutto and were duly rewarded for their roles.

The insurgency continued from 1973 to 1977 when General Zia-ul Haq staged a coup to oust Bhutto and arrived at an understanding with the incarcerated NAP leaders and the rebels.

With this background in mind we come to the present situation in Balochistan that needs to be looked at from domestic and international perspectives, for it is far more complex than what had been happening in the past.

The geopolitical changes in the post-Cold War period, together with the cataclysmic events related to 9/11, have imparted great importance to Balochistan and dragged Pakistan into what is referred to as the new ‘Great Game’, which is all about control of, and access to, the energy resources of Central Asia. In this regard, the following facts need to be highlighted:

  1. The Central Asian Republics are rich in oil and gas resources. They are landlocked and in dire need of a corridor for export of their energy resources and a transit route for trade and commerce.
  • China has produced an economic miracle during the last decade or so. To maintain the momentum of its growth, China has three sets of requirements:
  1. Transit trade route for its western region
  2. Energy corridor to import oil from the Gulf region
  3. Naval facilities or foothold on the Arabian Sea coast to protect its energy supply line from the Middle East.
  • India’s growth rate is also spectacular. For catering to its increasing energy requirement, it needs to look towards the Central Asian Republics and Iran. Its long-term strategic objective is to dominate the whole Indian Ocean region from eastern parts of African continent to South East Asia. It has its own version of ‘Monroe Doctrine’ for South Asian Subcontinent where it seeks absolute and exclusive hegemony.
  • The United States is pre-occupied with the obsession to maintain its super power status. To prevent the rise of any rival, be that China or any European power, the United States desires to dominate the Middle East and Central Asia, for they are rich in oil and gas resources. Apart from ‘war on terror’ and bogey of weapons of mass destruction, American occupation of Afghanistan and Iraq should be seen in the context of its quest for world hegemony. The United States wants to command important sea-lanes, be that the

Strait of Malacca, the Strait of Hormuz or the Suez Canal.

  • Due to its common border with Afghanistan, the United States considers Balochistan territory as important for military operations against Al-Qaeda and the Taliban. In fact, the United States has military bases in Dalbandin and Pasni on the Balochistan coast.

Fully mindful of the tremendous opportunities at hand, Pakistan government has embarked upon or envisaged a number of projects that have potentials to change the destiny of Balochistan.

The most important of all the projects is the Gwadar port that is being developed with the financial and technical assistance of China. The agreement for the construction of this deep-sea port on the Arabian Sea coast of Balochistan was concluded in 2001. The work on the project began in 2002 and its first phase was completed in January 2005. The Gwadar Port is situated at a distance of 725 km from Karachi and 72 km from the Iranian border and on completion it would serve as a transit route for Central Asian Republics as well as China.

The Gwadar Port would help China in enhancing its energy security by offering a transit terminal for oil imports from the Middle East and the Gulf region. At present the bulk of oil imported by China has to pass through the Strait of Malacca, a route that is quite long and increases the risk factor in abnormal times due to American presence in the region.

China is very much concerned about its energy security, and is, acquiring different facilities in Bangladesh, Myanmar, Cambodia and Thailand. [5]

After completion of the second phase, the Gwadar port would be able to receive oil tankers with a capacity of nearly 200,000 tons. Obviously it is not exclusively meant for China and a number of countries would use the facilities at Gwadar when it becomes the gateway to Central Asia.

Apart from a source of earning, the Gwadar Port is important for Pakistan from strategic and defense point of view. During the war of 1971, India had successfully blockaded the port of Karachi that could have choked the economic lifeline of Pakistan. There was a serious apprehension in the midst of the Kargil confrontation in 1999 that the Indian Navy might try to do the same again. To strengthen its naval defense, Pakistan has completed the construction of Ormara base.

Now, the Gwadar Port would not only be a relatively secure alternative port for Pakistan but with Chinese presence it would be a strong impediment for India in the realization of its hegemony in Indian Ocean region

The Chinese have vital interest in sovereignty, political independence, security and territorial integrity of Pakistan. In politics one does not have permanent friends or foes but because of the nature of China’s stakes in Pakistan it can be relied upon to stand by Pakistan in thick and thin. Both China and Pakistan have identity of interests in denying India any hegemonic role in the Indian Ocean.

Therefore, China’s presence on the Balochistan coast of Arabian Sea is beneficial for Pakistan. China is also expanding its cooperation with Pakistan in Saindak project. It is also a positive sign that Pakistan is not prepared to play any role in American design to contain China and is not willing to offer any facilities to the United States that may be considered as detrimental to Chinese security interests. All credit goes to the Musharraf government for concluding the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Good-Neighborly Relations with China on 5 April 2005 that has provisions to the above effect. [7]

The United States does not seem to be very happy with the Chinese role in Balochistan. In the first place, it goes against the America policy which is to develop India as a counterpoise to China in the Indian Ocean region.

Secondly, Chinese presence at Mekran Coast, right at the mouth of the Strait of Hormuz, which enhances China’s energy security and enables it to intercept communications of American military bases in the Gulf and to monitor naval movements in the region, is something unpleasant for the United States. Therefore, it may be in the interest of the United States to let Balochistan remain disturbed to an extent where progress on mega projects slows down.

By promoting Balochi nationalism, America can also hope to create problems for Iran in its Balochistan. However, the United States is in a dilemma because it realizes that the Pakistan government may have to rely on Islamic militants to counter the Balochi nationalists and that would have a negative impact on its so-called ‘war on terror’.

American dilemma is likely to restrain it from supporting the nationalists in Balochistan in any meaningful way. The United States ought to be well aware that by making any move that may antagonize Pakistan, it would only push that country further towards China.

The unrest in Balochistan is in India’s interest for various reasons: First to impede China from projecting its power in the Arabian Sea that India wants to be its domain. Secondly, to prevent Pakistan from offering safe transit route to Central Asian Republics, so that they opt for alternative Afghanistan–Iran route. India has been investing on Zaranj- Delaram road to facilitate trade links with Central Asia via Iran and Afghanistan. Thirdly, to apply pressure on Pakistan that it should give up support to militancy in Kashmir.

The opening of Indian consulates in Jalalabad and Kandhar has facilitated the RAW in its activities inside Balochistan. Indian statement on the situation in Balochistan was a blatant interference in Pakistan’s internal affairs and was duly rebuked.

However, the Baloch nationalists, including the tribal chiefs, have other complaints also:

  1. They perceive the policies of federal government as against their national aspirations and demand recognition of ethnic identities in ‘multi-national’ Pakistan. The nationalist leaders refer to past experiences of Baluchistan with Pakistan government, in particular during the crises of 1958 and 1973-1977.They insist on greater provincial autonomy, including recognition of their rights on natural resources and ports, something that the federal government finds difficult to concede.
  • The middle class Baloch nationalists resent the fact they do not have proper representation in the armed forces and civil administration.
  • The Baloch nationalists also contend that the federal government ignored the economic and social development of Balochistan during last six decades. Potable water is not available in several parts of Balochistan. It lags in education. There is hardly any industrialization in the province. Even Sui gas, which was discovered in 1953, was first supplied to big cities of Sindh and Punjab.
  • They resent the manner in which the mega projects have been conceived. Important jobs have gone to non-Balochis. The entrepreneurs from other provinces, in particular developers and builders, are minting money. Non-Balochis have benefited a lot from land speculation. Profitable contracts have gone to the armed forces personnel.
  • The Baloch nationalists are unanimously against the construction of cantonments in Kohlu, Sui or any other place.
  • In the past, the Bhutto government had failed to break the resolve of the Marris and Mengals, despite heavy deployment of troops and use of air power. According to one estimate some fifty-five thousand tribesmen fought against seventy thousand Pakistani troops during the 1973-77 insurgencies. The situation may not be much different today.

The common Baluch, uneducated and nurtured in tribal culture, has strong commitment to his chief and military action may lead to the involvement of the Pakistan Armed forces in a protracted and costly conflict. It is easy said than done that Pakistani troops can flush out the miscreants or destroy their sanctuaries.

No doubt, the Baloch nationalists do not seem to have strength to secure separation of Balochistan, but they do have the capability to damage transport and communication network at will through guerrilla warfare.

The sons of Khair Bukhsh Marri have established a foreign-based network to receive financial support and arms and ammunition. The Baloch Liberation Army (BLA) is said to be under their control. Akbar Bugti has his own force of about ten thousand tribesmen.

These tribal chiefs have managed to establish training camps where hundreds of disgruntled youth have been taught in use of weapons. The insurgents can also finance their war through drug-trafficking. The Pakistan government may be stretched to ensure security of pipelines, highways, railway tracks, electric towers and communication installations in sporadically populated and territorially vast Balochistan.

Given its own limitations and precarious geopolitical situation in the region, the preferable option for Pakistan government is to go gradually for the introduction of reforms in the existing administrative system.

Rather than imposing from above, let the urge for reforms come indigenously at appropriate time. Both the sides__ the government and the tribal chiefs                             have shown their muscles. It’s the time if the tribal chiefs offered a guarantee that development

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