GENDER STUDIES COURSE VERY IMPORTANT NOTES FPSC CSS BPS17 FEDERAL PUBLIC SERVICE COMMISSION COMPETITIVE EXAMINATION FOR POSTS IN BPS-17 UNDER THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT
- Introduction to gender studies
- What is gender studies
- Status of gender studies in Pakistan*
- Multi-Disciplinary nature of gender studies
- Basic concepts of gender studies*
- Autonomy Vs integration debate*
Construction of Gender
- Historicizing constructionism
- Problematizing the category of “Sex”: Queer Theory*
- Is “Sex” socially determined, too?*
- Masculinities and Feminism
- Nature versus Culture*
- Gender and Development
- Gender approaches to Development (WID, WAD, and GAD)*
- Theories of gender
- Modernization theory
- World System Theory*
- Dependency Theory*
- Structural Functionalism
- Globalization and Gender
- Status of Women in Pakistan
- Status of women health
- Status of women in education*
- Women and employment*
- Women and law*
- Feminist Theories and Practices
- What is Feminism
- Liberal Feminism*
- Radical Feminism*
- Marxist/Socialist Feminism*
- Psychoanalytical Feminism
- Men’s Feminism
- Postmodern Feminism*
- Feminist Movements
- First wave, Second wave, and third wave*
- UN conference on women
- Feminist movement in Pakistan
- Gender and Governance**
- Defining Governance
- Suffragist Movement
- Gender Issues in Women as Voters*
- Gender Issues in Women as Candidates*
- Gender Issues in Women as Representatives*
- Impact of Political Quota in Pakistan*
- Gender Based Violence
- Defining Gender Based Violence
- Theories of Violence against Women*
- Structural and Direct Forms of Violence*
- Strategies to Eliminate Violence against Women*
- Case Studies
- Mukhtaran Mai
- Sharmeen Obaid Chinoy*
- Malala Youzafzai*
Gender and Sex
- What is the difference between Gender and Sex?
- Sex: Biological identity is called sex (Male and Female)
- Gender: Socially constructed identity, role, behavior, and attributes is called
Gender (Man and Woman)
- Sex denotes to visible differences in genitalia and related differences in procreative function
- Gender is a socio-cultural construct and it refers to masculine and feminine
qualities, behavior patterns, related roles and responsibility, etc
- One is not born a woman but becomes a woman (Simon De bevour)
- Bearing a baby is sexual identity
- Rearing a baby is gendered identity
Difference between Gender Studies and women studies
- Women’s studies is a term used to refer to the theory and practice of feminist research and teaching in the academy.
- Women studies since 1934
- Gender studies since 1960
- Gender Studies encompass the rights and welfare of all human
- Women studies focuses on the rights and welfare of women
- Gender studies discuses equal ground and equal opportunities for
women, men and transgender
- Women studies focuses equal opportunities for women
- Gender studies focuses on cultural difference and analyze it critically
- Gender studies focuses on the both objective and subjective differences
- Pakistan 120th country in GDI
- Female literacy in Pakistan is less than male literacy rate
- Pakistan is one of the few where male to female ratio is higher
- Large number of female working in informal sector
- Massive gender disparity in employment sector
- Discriminatory laws that marginalized women
- Increasing number domestic abuse and violence
- Representation and participation of women in politics is least
- Threatening discipline that challenge the traditional knowledge
- Women’s studies to be a western and has no relevance in
- No moral and academic support to women’s studies
- Opposition of NGO sector
- Non Acceptance of people mindset towards this discipline
- Opposition of clergy as discipline is very liberal
- Women’s development division (Now Ministry of women
development) established five centers
- Women’s studies department in AIOU (1997)
- Women Research and Resource Center in FJWU (1999)
- Institute of Women Development Studies (IWDS) in University of Sindh, Jamshoro
- Center of excellence in Gender Studies (CEGS) in QAU
- Center of Excellence in women study program in Karachu University
- Gender studies
is all inclusive
- Political science
- Media Studies
- International Relations
- Social construction on the basis of sex
- Biological, genital identity
- Domestic Division
- Labor Division or division of work on the basis of gendered identity
E.g. Female bread maker, male bread earner
- Male Dominance idea or act
E.g Patriarchal educational system, Patriarchal Politics
- A school of thought that focus on the concept of equality, talks about a place where women are realized as an individual
- Division of two is called dichotomy
- Gay and lesbian politics, queer means blurring identity
- How many jobs and educations are there that requires sex organs as its job description or educational eligibility (other than prostitution or male escorts)?
Ò Gender studies is the new discipline in the field of social
what is it about? And how gender roles influence patriarchal
AUTONOMY VS INTEGRATION
Ò Is women’s studies a subject of its own or it only requires to be part of other
Ò Women’s studies is different in aims and objectives from other disciplines
Ò Adding women in different disciplines was not enough
Ò Autonomous women’s studies turnover the androcentric knowledge of academe
Ò Integrationist advocates the changes within the framework
Ò Advocates of autonomous women’s studies were of the view that framework
needs to be revised
DIFFERENT INTEGRATIONIST PROGRAMS WITH DIFFERENT APPROACHES
Ò Montana State University
É Focuses on reducing sex bias in higher curriculum
Ò Women’s college in Columbia
É Brought women’s studies closer to the center of whole curriculum as
dignity and equality of women is the uppermost aim
Ò Wheaton college Massachusetts
É balanced curriculum about experiences and accomplishment of
women as well as men
Ò Women’s studies as a separate discipline is considered to be a ghetto
Ò The most supported approach was Wheaton approach of balanced
Ò Mary Ruth Warner is advocate of autonomy of women’s studies she
was of the view that women’s studies as a separate discipline
Ò Women’s studies needs to be free from the patriarchal interference
Ò The southwest institute of for research on women (SIROW) said that integration is an adjunct not substitute
Ò Women studies endangered in the class of non-feminist
Ò Women’s studies acknowledged to be a mainstream discipline
Ò Integration lack research for women studies and will make women
invisible into the mainstream knowledge
Ò Autonomous women studies is necessary in order to provide knowledge for women
Ò Autonomy of women’s studies is also important because
theories created from men are biased (e.g. Sigmund Freud)
Ò There should be a link/bridge between women’s studies
centers in academe and women from community
Ò In integrationist approach women will end up buried in the existing courses and become invisible again
Ò Women’s studies must not follow the methodologies and
researches from traditional disciplines
Ò By definition feminism is a movement against sexism, sexist oppression, and exploitation (Feminism is for every body: Passionate politics)
Ò Feminist is the person who followed the notion that women have ability to contribute in all the aspect of life equally
Ò Feminists are also persons who does not only believe in that women are marginalized and oppressed but also focus on the radical change in the society
Ò Feminism focuses on the equal liberty and equal access for women
in all phases of
WAVES OF FEMINISM
Ò Waves means era or history
Ò Feminism developed in three waves
Ò First Wave of feminism (Liberal Feminisms)
Ò Second Wave of feminism (Radical Feminism)
Ò Third wave
FIRST WAVE OF FEMINISM
Ò First wave of feminism originated in early 19th century
Ò Advocated of first wave of feminism were Marry Wolstonecraft
Frances E. W Harpener and Elizebth Candy
Ò Main goal of the wave was women liberation from slavery and
Ò Before industrial revolution women and men tend to share their work and income as well (egalitarian society)
Ò During first
rises in US
Ò First wave focuses basic rights of women from working class
Ò Equal opportunity demanded for women in employment,
education, and politics
Ð No race can afford to neglect the enlightenment of its mothers. (Frances
E. W Harper)
SECOND WAVE OF FEMINISM
Ò Second wave of feminism originated in ate 19th century
Ò Women realized that getting equal opportunity is not making them equal to
men and they are still deprived of their basic need and rights
Ò Second wave of feminism refers to the movement of radical feminism
Ò Their supreme goal was to abolition od male supremacy
Ò They raised slogans like personal is political
Ò During this wave consciousness raising increases
are not inherently passive
or peaceful, women are inherently nothing but human (Robin Morgan 1941)
Ò Advocated of second wave was Simon De beavior, John Stuart Mill, and Harriet Taylor
Ò Focused on bodily discrimination and reproductive rights
Ð There are
jobs that actually
require a penis or vagina. All other jobs should be open to everybody. (Florynce Kennedy (1916–2000))
THIRD WAVE OF FEMINISM
Ò Third wave of feminism is also known as movements of young
Ò It originates in early 20th century, when women to some extent
succeeded in getting their basic rights
Ò Third wave refers to the movements of post-modern feminism
Ò Major focus during third wave of feminism was queer and homosexuality
Ò Feminism also becomes global feminism and trans feminism
Ò Advocates of third wave feminism Rebbeca Walker, Bikini Kill, and
Ò Liberal feminism focuses in the changes and equality within structure
Ò Thinkers of Liberal feminism was Marry Wolstonecraft, John Stuart Mill, and
Ò The wave arises during the declining economic condition in Europe
Ò After industrial revolution, capitalism rises and promoted the labor division resulting public and private dichotomy of labor within household
Ò Liberal feminist believes that men and women both owes same intellectual
capacity thus provided equal grounds in education and employment
Ò Women should have right to vote, and right to own property
Ò Supported same civil rights and economic opportunities for women
as for men
Ò Equal chances given in order to develop rational and moral capacity
Ò Differences in societies is due to men being given more chances
than women in social and economic race
É Communitarian critiques that liberals strictly focuses on the cultural aspects
É Liberals believes that women can get their basic rights only by thinking
and getting what men have
É Socialist Critique that liberal are very eager to adopt male values
É Liberal feminists belongs to bourgeois white women class supporting the notion of that specific class
Ò Radical feminism is second most notable brand of feminism
Ò They have criticized liberal feminists and said that liberals stick to the socially constructed norms and cultural differences
Ò Radical feminist believes that oppression and exploitation of women in the society is also because of biological and natural reasons
Ò Radical feminist see women expression as mothers, as housewives, and as sex partners
Ò There are two groups in radical feminism:
É Libertarian Radical Feminism
É Cultural Radical Feminism
Ò Libertarian Radical Feminism
É Body of female is the cause of oppression
É Women should not reproduce and marry
É This group of feminist supported lesbianism
Ò Cultural Radical Feminism
É They believe if biology is cause of oppression women should use it as tool
É Reproduction and
higher value to femininity
Ò General Critique on Radical Feminism
É They ignores class differences, heterosexual relation differences, color
and creed differences
É They believes in universal sisterhood ignoring economic, social disability causing women oppression
É There are differences in the way
women read oppression, not
manywomen see the primary oppression to be on the gender lines.
Ò What do you think Liberal or Radical brand fits in the context of
Pakistani society? Advocates your choice of brand?
GENDER STUDIES Lecture 3
MARXIST AND SOCIALIST FEMINISM
Although it is possible to distinguish between Marxist and socialist feminist thought, it is quite difficult to do so. The differences between these two schools of thought are more a matter of emphasis than of substance. Marxist feminists tend to pay their respects directly to Marx, Engels, and other nineteenth-century thinkers; they also tend to identify classism rather than sexism as the ultimate cause of women’s oppression. In contrast, socialist feminists seem more influenced by twentieth-century thinkers such as Louis Althusser and Jurgen Habermas.
Moreover, they insist the fundamental cause of women’s oppression is neither “classism” nor “sexism” but an intricate interplay between capitalism and patriarchy. In the final analysis, however, the differences between Marxist and socialist feminists are not nearly as important as their common conviction. Marxist and socialist feminists alike believe women’s oppression is not the result of individuals’ intentional actions but is the product of the political, social, and ecnomic structures within which individuals live.
Marxist feminism is concerned about the unequal distribution of means and modes of production
Women exploitation in both public and private sphere
Marxist feminism criticizes the capitalist economic system, capitalism creates and
promote power relations
Capitalism creates surplus value*
Women choice of job is due to the lack of available resources to them
Women are seen in the informal
and unpaid sector most than in formal and paid
sector because of the lack and boundaries created by the capital elite
There is distribution among the divide of capital and labor
There are labors who are property less, and poor and belongs to the group of have nots, whereas their owners lives in luxury and belongs to the group of haves
Two type of classes emerges in this result; bourgeois and proletarian
Women does not belong to any class their belongingness is identified from which class their men belong
Identity of women in society is then define as: wife, mother, sister, daughter of bourgeois man or wife, mother, sister, daughter of proletarian man
Women choice of job and work is dependent upon the opportunities and choices provided. (e.g. prostitute)
Alienation is transfer the ownership or snatching/leaving behind the person who is responsible for the good results
There are three states of alienation:
- Alienation from themselves
- Alienation from Humans
- Alienation from Nature
Labors are alienated form the product they produced, they deprived to get the actual fruits of their labor (e.g. shoe factory)
Labors are alienated from themselves, suffer from psychological crisis feeling of being treated as machine or robot
Human beings are considered as competition which is mere demand of capitalism
The work done by labors in the capitalist system is not nature friendly, nature seems
to them as unfirendly
ALIENATION AND WOMEN
Men relieved their frustration from capitalist exploitation
Women if doing labor suffer exploitation from both the capital and men at home
Focus of Marxist and socialist feminist is to see women as integrated person
Purpose of being a house maker should not be just making every one happy and satisfied
In capitalist system Marxist and socialist feminist are of the view that people are not free to do what they want to do.
People do what system tells her/him to do which ultimately
end up with only two groups with Haves and Have nots
Juliet Mitchell has the strongest criticism on Marxist feminism
Economic revolution does not bring peace and ends social inequalities
Not only economic independence is necessary for women but attitude of men towards
women and women towards men also needs to be changed
Men have an inherent nature of oppress women Early childhood development
Relationship with parents
Women role as mother and daughter
Masculinity gratification and femininity impossibility of union
Parenting and social role of girls and boys (Development of person’s sexuality)
Contributor: Judith Butler, Julliet Mitchel, Jacquiline Rose
Critique: misogynist, only focused on emotions and subjective experiences, lack of total subordination reason fro women
THE PAKISTAN CITIZENSHIP ACT, 1951 (II OF 1951)
- Short title and commencement
- Citizenship at the date of commencement of this Act
- Citizenship by birth
- Citizenship by descent
- Citizenship by migration
- Persons migrating from the territories of Pakistan
- Rights of citizenship of certain persons resident abroad
- Citizenship by naturalization
- Married women
- Registration of minors
- Citizenship by registration to begin on date of registration
- Citizenship by incorporation of territory
- Dual citizenship or nationality not permitted 14-A Renunciation of citizenship
14-B Certain persons to be citizens of Pakistan
- Persons becoming citizens to have the status of Commonwealth citizens
- Deprivation of citizenship
16-A Certain persons to lose and others to retain citizenship
- Certificate of domicile
- Delegation of persons
- Cases of doubt as to citizenship
- Acquisition of Pakistan citizenship by citizens of Commonwealth’ countries
THE PAKISTAN CITIZENSHIP ACT, 1951 (II OF 1951)
to provide for Pakistan Citizenship
[13th April, 1951]
Preamble.— Whereas it is expedient to make provision for citizenship of Pakistan; It is hereby enacted as follows :-
- Short title and commencement.— (1) This Act may be called the Pakistan Citizenship Act, 1951.
(2) It shall come into force at once.
- Definitions.— In this Act:-
‘Alien’ means a person who is not citizen of Pakistan or a Commonwealth citizen;
‘Indo-Pakistan sub-continent’ means India as defined in the Government of India Act, 1935, as originally enacted; ‘minor’ means, notwithstanding anything in the Majority Act, 1875, any person who has not completed the age of twenty-one years; ‘prescribed’ means prescribed by rules made under this Act;
‘Commonwealth citizen’ means a person who has the status of a Commonwealth citizen under the British Nationality Act, 1948;
‘British protected person’ means a person who has the status of a British protected person for the purposes of the British Nationality Act, 1948.
- Citizenship at the date of commencement of this Act.— At the commencement of this Act every person shall be deemed
to be a citizen of Pakistan:-
- who or any of whose parents or grandparents was born in the territory now included in Pakistan and who after the fourteenth day of August, 1947, has not been permanently resident in any country outside Pakistan; or
- who or any of whose parents or grandparents was born in the territories included in India on the thirty-first day of March, 1973, and who, except in the case of a person who was in the service of Pakistan or of any Government or Administration in Pakistan at the commencement of this Act, has or had his domicile within the meaning of Part II of the Succession Act, 1925, as in force at the commencement of this Act, in Pakistan or in the territories now included in Pakistan;
- Who is a person naturalized as a British subject in Pakistan; and who, if before the date of the commencement of this Act he has acquired the citizenship of any foreign State, has before that date renounced the same by depositing a declaration in writing to that effect
with an authority appointed or empowered to receive it;
- Who before the commencement of this Act migrated to the territories now Included in Pakistan from any territory in the Indo-Pakistan sub-continent outside those territories with the intention of residing permanently in those territories.Proviso.Omitted by the Pakistan Citizenship Act, V of 1952, and Section 3.
- Citizenship by birth.— Every person born in Pakistan after the commencement of this Act shall be a citizen of Pakistan by birth:
Provided that a person shall not be such a citizen by virtue of this section if at the time of his birth: —
- his father possesses such immunity from suit and legal process as is accorded to an every of an external sovereign power accredited in Pakistan and is not a citizen of Pakistan; or
- His father is an enemy alien and the birth occurs in a place then under occupation by the enemy.
- Citizenship by descent.— Subject to the provision of section 3 a person born after the commencement of this Act, shall be a citizen of Pakistan by descent if his parent is a citizen of Pakistan at the time of his birth:
Provided that if the 1[parent] of such person is a citizen of Pakistan by descent only, that person shall not be a citizen of Pakistan by virtue of this section unless:-
- that person’s birth having, occurred in a country outside Pakistan
the birth is registered at Pakistan
Consulate or Mission
in that country,
or where there is no Pakistan Consulate or
Mission in that country at the
prescribed Consulate or Mission or at
Consulate or Mission
in the country nearest to that
country ; or
- That person’s 2 [parent[is, at the time of the birth, in the service of any Government in Pakistan.
- Citizenship by migration.— (1) The 3[Federal Government] may, upon his obtaining a certificate of domicile under this Act, register as a citizen of Pakistan by migration any person who 4[after the commencement of this Act and before the first day of January, 1952, has migrated] to the territories now included in Pakistan from any territory in the Indo-Pakistan sub-continent outside those territories, with the intention of residing permanently in those territories:
Provided that the Federal Government may, by general or special order, except 5 any person or class persons from obtaining a certificate of domicile require under this subsection.
(2) Registration granted under the preceding subsection shall include besides the person himself, his wife, if any, unless his marriage with her has been dissolved and any minor child or his dependent whether wholly or partially upon him.
- Persons migrating from the territories of Pakistan.— Notwithstanding anything in sections 3, 4 and 6, a person who has after the first day of March 1947, migrated for the territories now included in Pakistan to the territories now included in India shall not be a citizen of Pakistan under the provision of these sections:
Provided that nothing in this section shall apply to a person who, after having go migrated to the territories now included in India has returned to the territories now included in Pakistan under a permit for resettlement or permanent return issued by or under the authority of any law for the time being in force.
- Rights of citizenship of certain persons resident abroad.— 6 (1) The Federal Government may, upon application made to it in this half, register as a citizen of Pakistan any person who, or whose father or whose father’s father, who born in the Indo-Pakistan sub- continent and who is ordinarily resident in a country outside Pakistan at the commencement of this Act, if he has unless exempted by the Federal Government in this behalf, obtained a certificate of domicile:
Provided that certificate of domicile shall not be required in the case of any such person who is out of Pakistan under the protection of a Pakistan passport, or in the case of any such person whose father or whose father’s father is at the commencement of this Act residing in Pakistan or become’s before the aforesaid application is made a citizen of Pakistan.
7 (2) A subject of the State of Jammu and Kashmir who, being under the protection of a Pakistan passport, is resident in the United Kingdom or such other country as the Federal Government may, by notification in the official Gazette, specify in this behalf, shall, without prejudice to his rights and status as a subject of that State, be deemed to be, and to have been, a citizen of Pakistan].
1 Subs for the word “father” by ordinance NO. XIII of 2000 dated 18-04-2000. 2 Subs for the word “father” by ordinance NO. XIII of 2000 dated 18-04-2000. 3 Subs for “Central Government” by Act XLVII of 1973,
4 Subs, by the Pakistan Citizenship (Admt) Act. 1952 (V of 1952), S.5. for “before the commencement of this act migrated.”
5 All Gov. servants includent optees coming form the late govt. of India, shall as a class be exempt from obtaining the certificate of domicile, see Gaz. Of Pakistan 1952, R.1, P113.
6Re-numbered by Pakistan Citizenship. (Amdt.) Act. (XLVII of 1973), S.2
7 Added by Act XLVIII of 1973, Pub in Gaz of Pakistan Ext., Part I, dt. 19-06-1933 [PLD 1973 Cent. St. P. 528]
- Citizenship by naturalization.— The Federal Government may, upon an application made to it in that behalf by any person who has been granted a certificate of naturalization under the Naturalization Act, 1926 register that person as a citizen of Pakistan by naturalization:
Provided that the Federal Government may register any person as citizen of Pakistan without his having obtained a certificate of naturalization as aforesaid.
- Married women.— (1) any woman who by reason of her marriage to a 8 [British subject] before the first day of January, 1949, has acquired the status of a British subject shall, if her husband becomes a citizen of Pakistan, be a citizen of Pakistan.
- Subject to the provisions of sub-section (1) and subsection (4) a woman who has been married to a citizen of Pakistan or to a person who but for his death would have been a citizen of Pakistan under section 3, 4 or 5 shall be entitled, on making application therefore to the Federal Government in the prescribed manner, add, if she is an alien, on obtaining a certificate of domicile and taking the oath of allegiance in the form set out in the Schedule to this Act, to be registered as a citizen of Pakistan whether or not she has completed twenty-one years of her age and is of full capacity.
- Subject as aforesaid, a woman who has been married to a person who, but for his death, could have been a citizen of Pakistan under the provisions of sub-section (1) of section 6 (whether the migrated is provided in that sub-section or is deemed under the proviso to section 7 to have so migrated) shall be entitled as provided in sub-section (2) subject further, if she is an alien, to her obtaining the certificate and taken the oath therein mentioned.
- A person who has ceased to be citizen of Pakistan under section 14 or who has been deprived of citizenship of Pakistan under this Act shall not be entitled to be registered as a citizen thereof under this section but may be s registered with the previous consent of the Federal Government.
- Registration of minors.— (1) The Federal Government may, upon application to it in this behalf made in the prescribed manner, by a parent or guardian of a minor child of a citizen of Pakistan, register the child as a citizen of Pakistan.
(2) The Federal Government may in such circumstances as it thinks fit, register any minor, as a citizen of Pakistan.
- Citizenship by registration to begin on date of registration.— Any person registered as a citizen of Pakistan shall be such a citizen from the date of his registration.
- Citizenship by incorporation of territory.— lf any territory becomes a part of Pakistan the 9 [President] may, by order, specify the persons who shall be citizens of Pakistan by reason of their connection with that territory : and those person shall be citizens of Pakistan from such date and upon conditions, if any, as may be specified in the order.
- Dual citizenship or nationality not permitted.— (1) Subject to the provisions of this section if any person is a citizen of Pakistan under the provisions of this Act, and is at the same time a citizen or national of any other country he shall, unless he makes a declaration according to the laws of that other country renouncing his status as citizen or national thereof, cease to be a citizen of Pakistan.
10 (IA) Nothing in sub-section (1) applies to a person who has not attained twenty-one years of his age:
(2) Nothing in sub-section (1) shall apply to any person who is a subject of an Acceding State so far as concerns his being a subject of that State.
11(3) Nothing in sub-section (1) shall apply, or shall be deemed ever to have applied at any stage, to a person who being, or having at any time been, a citizen of Pakistan, is also the citizen of the United Kingdom and Colonies or of such other country as the Federal Government may, by notification in the official Gazette, specify in this behalf.
- Nothing in sub-section (1) shall apply to a female citizen of Pakistan who is married to a person who is not a citizen of Pakistan.
8 Subs, by the Pakistan Citizenship (Amdt) Act, 1952 (V of 1952) S. 6, for “Commonwealth Citizen.”
9 Subs. by AO 1961 Act, w, for “Governor-General “ w.e.f 23rd March 1956)
10 Sub section ; A insent., ibid
11 Added by Act XVII of 1972 Pub. In Gaz fo Pakistan Extd., Part I, dt 25 Sep, 1972 [PLD 1973 Cent v St. P, Li]
12[14-A. Renunciation of citizenship.— (1) If any citizen of Pakistan residing outside Pakistan, who is not a minor and:-
- is also a citizen or national of another
- has been given by the competent authority of another country any valid document assuring him of the grant of the citizenship or nationality of that other country upon renouncing his citizenship of Pakistan, makes in the prescribed manner a declaration renouncing his citizenship of Pakistan, the declaration shall be registered by the prescribed authority; and upon such registration that person shall cease to be a citizen of Pakistan:
Provided that, if any such declaration is made during any war in which Pakistan may be engaged, registration thereof shall be withheld until the Federal Government otherwise directs.
- Where a
male person ceases to be a citizen
of Pakistan under
- Every such minor child of that person as is residing outside Pakistan shall thereupon ease to be a citizen of Pakistan:
Provided that any such child may, within one year of his completing the age of twenty-one years, make a declaration that he wishes to resume the citizenship of Pakistan and shall upon the making of such declaration become a citizen of Pakistan ; and
- Every such minor child of that person as is residing in Pakistan shall continue to be a citizen of Pakistan.
13[14-B.Certain persons to be citizens of Pakistan.— A person who being a subject of the State of Jammu and Kashmir, has migrated to Pakistan with the intention of residing therein until such time as the relationship between Pakistan and that State is finally determined, shall, without prejudice to his status as such subject, be a citizen of Pakistan.
- Persons becoming citizens to have the status of Commonwealth citizens.— Every person becoming a citizen of Pakistan under this Act shall have the status of a Commonwealth citizen.
- Deprivation of citizenship.— (1) a citizen of Pakistan shall cease to be a citizen of Pakistan if he is deprived of that citizenship by an order under the next following subsections.
- Subject to the provisions of this section the Federal Government may by order deprive any such citizen of his citizenship if it is satisfied that he obtained his certificate of domicile or certificate of naturalization under the Naturalization Act, 1926 by means of fraud, false representation or the concealment of any material fact, or if his certificate of naturalization is revoked.
- Subject to the provisions of this section the Federal Government may by order deprive any person who is a citizen of Pakistan by naturalization of his citizenship of Pakistan if it is satisfied that the citizen :-
- Has shown himself by any act or speech to be disloyal or disaffected to the Constitution of Pakistan;
- has, during a war in which Pakistan is or has been engaged, unlawfully traded or communicated with the enemy or engaged in or associated with any business that was to his knowledge carried on in such a manner as to assist the enemy in that war; or
- Has within five years of being naturalized been sentenced in any country to imprisonment for a term of not less than twelve months.
- The Federal Government may on
an application being made or
on its own motion by order deprive
any citizen of Pakistan
of his citizenship if it is satisfied
that he has been ordinarily resident in a country outside Pakistan
a continuous period of seven years
beginning not earlier than the commencement of this Act and during that
period has neither:-
- been at any time in the service of any Government in Pakistan or of an International Organization of which Pakistan has, at any time during that period been a member; or
12 Inserted by Act XVII of 1972 Pub in Gaz of Pakistan Extd., Part I dt. 25th Sep, 1972 [PLD 1973 cent. St. P.11)
13 Inst. By Act XXXIX of 1973 [PLD 1973 cent. St. P 484]
- registered annually in the prescribed manner at a Pakistan Consulate or Mission or in a country where is no Pakistan Consulate or Mission at the
Prescribed Consulate or Mission or at a Pakistan Consulate or Mission in a country to the country of his residence his intention to retain Pakistan citizenship.
- The Federal Government shall not make an order depriving a person of citizenship under this section unless it is satisfied that it is in the public interest that the person should not continue to be a citizen of Pakistan.
- Before making an order under this section the Federal Government shall give the person against whom it is proposed to make the order notice in writing informing him of the grounds on which it is proposed to make order and calling upon him to show cause why it should not be made.
- If it is proposed to make the order on any of the grounds specified in sub-sections
- and (3) of this section and the person against whom it is proposed to make the order applies in the prescribed manner for an inquiry, the Federal Government shall, and in any other case may, refer the case to a committee of inquiry consisting of a Chairman, being a person possessing judicial experience, appointed by the Federal Government and of such other members appointed by the Federal Government as it thinks proper.
1416-A. Certain persons to lose and others to retain citizenship.— (1) All persons who, at any time before the sixteenth day of December 1971, were citizens of Pakistan domiciled in the territories which before the said day constituted the Province of East Pakistan and who-
- Were residing in those territories on that day and are residing therein since that day
voluntarily or otherwise
shall cease to be citizens of Pakistan;
- Were residing in Pakistan on that day but after that day voluntarily migrate to those territories shall cease to be citizens of Pakistan;
- Were residing in Pakistan on ‘that- day and are voluntarily residing therein service that day shall continue to be citizens of Pakistan;
- Were residing in those territories on that day but voluntarily came to Pakistan after that day with the approval of the Federal Government shall continue to be citizens of Pakistan:
Provided that any person referred to in clause (I) whose repatriation to Pakistan has been agreed to by the Federal Government and who have, not been so repatriated before the commencement of Pakistan Citizenship (Amendment) Ordinance, 1978, shall continue to be citizens of Pakistan.
(2) Any person who, at any time before the sixteenth day of December 1971, was a citizen of Pakistan domiciled in the territories which before the said day constituted the Province of East Pakistan and who being under the protection of Pakistan passport, was on that day, or is residing in any country beyond those territories shall not be deemed to be a citizen of Pakistan unless, upon an application made by him to the Federal Government in this behalf the Federal Government has granted , him a certificate that at the date of the certificate he is a citizen of Pakistan.
- Certificate of domicile.— The Federal Government may upon an application being made to it in the prescribed manner containing the prescribed particulars grant a certificate of domicile to any person in respect of whom it is satisfied that he has ordinarily
Resided in-Pakistan for a period of not less than one year immediately before the making of the application and has acquired a domicile therein.
- Delegation of persons.— The Federal Government may, by order notified in the official Gazette, direct that any power conferred upon it or duly imposed on it by this Act shall, in such circumstances, and under such conditions, if any, as may be specified in the direction, be exercised or discharged by such authority or officer as may be specified.
- Cases of doubt as to citizenship.— (1) Where a person with respect to show citizenship a doubt, exists, whether on a question of law or fact makes application in that behalf to the Federal Government, the Federal Government may grant him a certificate that at the date of the certificate he is a citizen of Pakistan.
14 Inserted vide No. F 24 (1) 78, Pub in Gaz of Pakistan Extd. Pt I dt 18th march 1978. [PLD 1978 Cent. St P 74]
(2) The certificate, unless it is proved to have been obtained by fraud false representation or concealment of any material fact, shall be conclusive evidence of the fact recorded in it.
- Acquisition of Pakistan citizenship by citizens of Commonwealth’ countries.— The Federal Government may upon such terms and conditions as it may be general or special order specify register a Commonwealth citizen or a British protected person as a citizen of Pakistan.
- Penalties.— Any person who in order to obtain or prevent the doing of anything under the Act makes any statement or furnishes any information which is false in any material particular and which he knows or has reasonable cause to believe to be false, or does not believe to be true, shall be deemed to have committed an offence punishable under section 177 of the Pakistan Penal Code.
- Interpretation.— (1) For the purposes of this Act a person born abroad a registered ship or aircraft, or aboard an unregistered ship or aircraft of the Government of any country shall be deemed to have been born in the place in which the ship or aircraft was registered or as the case may be in that country.
(2) Any reference in this Act to the status or description of the father of a person at the time of that person’s birth shall, in relation to a person born after the death of his father be construed as a reference to the status or description of father at the time of the father’s death; and where the death occurred before, and the birth occurs after the commencement of this Act, the status or description which would have been applicable to the father had he died after the commencement of this Act shall be deemed to be the status or description applicable to him at the time of his death,
- Rules.— (1) The Federal Government may frame rules for carrying into effect the provisions of this Act.
(2) No rules framed
under this Act shall have effect unless published in the official Gazette.
[THE PROTECTION AGAINST HARASSMENT OF WOMEN AT THE WORKPLACE ACT 2010]
Acts, Ordinance, President’s Orders and Regulations
Islamabad, the 11th March, 2010
No. F. 9 (5)/2009- Legis. The following Acts of Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament) received the assent of the President on 9th March, 2010, are hereby published for general information:
Act No. IV OF 2010
An Act to make provisions for the protection against harassment of women at the workplace
WHEREAS the constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan recognizes the fundamental rights of citizens to dignity of person;
AND WHEREAS it is expedient to make this provision for the protection of women from harassment at the workplace;
It is hereby enacted as follows:
- Short title, extent and commencement. – (1) This Act may be called the Protection against Harassment of women at the Workplace Act, 2010.
- It extends to the whole of Pakistan.
- It shall come into force at once.
- Definitions. –
In this Act, unless
there is anything repugnant in the subject
- “accused” means an employee or employer of an organization against whom complaint has been made under this Act;
(b) “CBA” means Collective Bargaining Agent as provided in the Industrial Relations Act 2008,( IV of 2008) or any other law for the time being in force.
- “Code” means the Code of Conduct as mentioned in the Schedule to this Act;
- “Competent Authority” means the authority as may be designated by the management for the purposes of this Act;
- “Complainant” means a woman or man who has made a complaint to the Ombudsman or to the Inquiry Committee on being aggrieved by an act of harassment;
- “Employee” means a
regular or contractual employee whether employed on daily, weekly,
ormonthly or hourly basis, and includes an intern or an apprentice;
- “Employer” in
relation to an organization, means any person or body of persons
whether incorporated or not, who or which employs workers in an organization under a contract
of employment or in any other manner whosoever and includes –
- an heir, successor or assign, as the case may be, of such person or, body as aforesaid;
- any person responsible for the direction, administration,
– 2 –
management and control of the management;
- the authority, in relation of an organization or a group of
organization run by or under the authority of any Ministry
or department of the Federal
Government or a Provincial government, appointed in this behalf
or, where no authority is appointed, the head of the Ministry
or department as the case may be;
- the office bearer, in relation to an organization run by or on behalf of the local authority, appointed in this behalf, or where no officer is so appointed, the chief executive officer bearer of that authority;
- the proprietor, in relation to any other organization, of such organization and every director, manager, secretary, agent or office bearer or person concerned with the management of the affairs thereof.
- a contractor or an organization of a contractor who or which undertakes to procure the labour or services of employees for use by another person or in another organization for any purpose whatsoever and for payment in any form and on any basis whatsoevery; and
(vi) office bearers of a department of a Division of a Federal or a Provincial or local authority who belong to the managerial, secretarial or directional cadre or categories of supervisors or agents and those who have been notified for this purpose in the official Gazette;
- harassment” means any unwelcome sexual advance, request for sexual favors or other verbal or written communication or physical conduct of a sexual nature or sexually demeaning attitudes, causing interference with work performance or creating an intimidating, hostile or offensive work environment, or the attempt to punish the complainant for refusal to comply to such a request or is made a condition for employment;
- “Inquiry Committee” means the Inquiry Committee established under
– 3 –
sub-section (1) of section 3;
- “management” means a person or body of persons responsible for the management of the affairs of an organization and includes an employer;
- “Ombudsman” means the Ombudsman appointed under section 7
- “organization” means a Federal or Provincial Government Ministry, Division or department, a corporation or any autonomous or semi- autonomous body, Educational Institutes, Medical facilities established or controlled by the Federal or Provincial Government or District Government or registered civil society associations or privately managed a commercial or an industrial establishment or institution, a company as defined in the Companies Ordinance, 1984 (XLVII of 1984) and includes any other registered private sector organization or institution;
- “Schedule” means Schedule annexed to this Act;
- “workplace” means the place of work or the premises where an organization or employer operates and includes building, factory, open area or a larger geographical area where the activities of the organization or of employer are carried out and including any situation that is linked to official work or official activity outside the office.
- Inquiry Committee. – (1) Each organization shall constitute an Inquiry Committee within thirty days of the enactment of this Act to enquire into complaints under this Act.
- The Committee shall consist of three members of whom at least one member shall be a woman. One member shall be from senior management and one shall be a senior representative of the employees or a senior employee where there is no CBA. One or more members can be co-opted from outside the organization if the organization is unable to designate three members from within as described above. A Chairperson shall be designated from amongst them.
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- In case a complaint is made against one of the members of the Inquiry Committee that member should be replaced by another for that particular case. Such member may be from within or outside the organization.
- In case where no competent authority is designated the organization shall within thirty days of the enactment of this Act designate a competent authority
- Procedure for holding inquiry.– (1) The
Inquiry Committee, within three days of receipt of a written
- communicate to the accused the charges and statement of allegations leveled against him, the formal written receipt of which will be given;
- require the accused within seven days from the day the charge is communicated to him to submit a written defense and on his failure to do so without reasonable cause, the Committee shall proceed ex-parte; and
- enquire into the charge and may examine such oral or documentary evidence in support of the charge or in defense of the accused as the Committee may consider necessary and each party shall be entitled to cross-examine the witnesses against him.
- Subject to the provisions of this Act and any rules made thereunder the Inquiry Committee shall have power to regulate its own procedure for conducting inquiry and for the fixing place and time of its sitting.
- The following provisions inter alia shall be followed by the Committee in relation to inquiry:
- The statements and other evidence acquired in the inquiry process shall be considered as confidential;
- An officer in an organization, if considered necessary, may be nominated to provide advice and assistance to each party;
- Both parties, the complainant and the accused, shall have the right to be represented or accompanied by a Collective Bargaining Agent representative, a friend or a colleague;
– 5 –
- Adverse action shall not be taken
against the complainant or the witnesses;
- The inquiry Committee shall ensure that the employer or accused shall in no case create any hostile environment for the complainant so as to pressurize her from freely pursuing her complaint; and
- The Inquiry Committee shall give its findings in writing by recording reasons thereof.
- The Inquiry Committee shall submit its findings and recommendations to the Competent Authority within thirty days of the initiation of inquiry. If the Inquiry Committee finds the accused to be guilty it shall recommend to the Competent Authority for imposing one or more of the following penalties:
- Minor penalties:
- withholding, for a specific period, promotion or increment;
- stoppage, for a specific period, at an efficiency bar in the time-scale, otherwise than for unfitness to cross such bar; and
- recovery of the compensation payable to the complainant from pay or any other source of the accused;
- Major penalties:
- reduction to a lower post or time-scale, or to a lower stage in a time-scale;
- compulsory retirement;
- removal from service;
- dismissal from service; and
- Fine. A part of the fine can be used as compensation for the complainant. In case of the owner, the fine shall be payable to the complainant.
- The Competent Authority shall impose the penalty recommended by the
– 6 –
Inquiry Committee under sub-section (4) within one week of the receipt of the recommendations of the Inquiry Committee
- The Inquiry Committee shall meet on regular basis and monitor the situation regularly until they are satisfied that their recommendations subject to decision, if any of Competent Authority and Appellate Authority have been implemented.
- In case the complainant is in trauma the organization will arrange for
psycho-social counseling or medical treatment and for additional medical leave.
- The organization may also offer compensation to the complainant in case of loss of salary or other damages.
- Powers of
the Inquiry Committee. – (1)
The Inquiry Committee
shall have power–
- to summon and enforce attendance of any person and examine him on oath;
- to require the discovery and production of any document;
- to receive evidence on affidavits; and
- to record evidence.
- The Inquiry Committee shall have the power to inquire into the matters of harassment under this Act, to get the complainant or the accused medically examined by an authorized doctor, if necessary, and may recommend appropriate penalty against the accused within the meaning of sub-section (4) of section 4.
- The Inquiry Committee may recommend to Ombudsman for appropriate action against the complainant if allegations leveled against the accused found to be false and made with mala fide intentions.
- The Inquiry Committee can instruct to treat the proceedings confidential.
- Appeal against minor and major penalties.– (1) Any party aggrieved by
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decision of the Competent Authority on whom minor or major penalty is imposed may within thirty days of written communication of decision prefer an appeal to an Ombudsman established under section 7 .
- A complainant aggrieved by the decision of the Competent Authority may also prefer appeal within thirty days of the decision to the Ombudsman.
- The Appellate Authority may, on consideration of the appeal and any other relevant material, confirm, set aside, vary or modify the decision within thirty days in respect of which such appeal is made. It shall communicate the decision to both the parties and the employer.
- Until such a time that the ombudsman is appointed the District Court shall have the jurisdiction to hear appeals against the decisions of Competent Authority and the provisions of sub-sections (1) to (3) shall mutatis mutandis apply
- On the appointment of Ombudsman all appeals pending before the District Court shall stand transferred to Ombudsman who may proceed with the case from the stage at which it was pending immediately before such transfer.
- Ombudsman:- (1) The respective Governments shall appoint an ombudsman at the Federal and provincial levels.
- A person shall be qualified to be appointed as an Ombudsman who has been a judge of high court or qualified to be appointed as a judge of high court. The Ombudsman may recruit such staff as required to achieve the purposes of this Act and the finances will be provided by the respective Governments
- Ombudsman to enquire into complaint.- (1) Any employee shall have the option to prefer a complaint either to the Ombudsman or the Inquiry Committee. ‘
- The Ombudsman shall within 3 days of receiving a complaint issue a written show cause notice to the accused. The accused after the receipt of written notice, shall submit written defense to the Ombudsman within five days and his failure to do so without reasonable cause the Ombudsman may proceed ex parte. Both the parties can represent themselves
– 8 –
before the Ombudsman.
- The Ombudsman shall conduct an inquiry into the matter according to the rules made under this Act and conduct proceedings as the Ombudsman deems proper.
- For the purposes of an investigation under this Act, the Ombudsman may require any office or member of an organization concerned to furnish any information or to produce any document which in the opinion of the Ombudsman is relevant and helpful in the conduct of the investigation.
- The Ombudsman shall record his decision and inform both parties and the management of the concerned organization for implementation of the orders.
- Representation to President or Governor:- Any person aggrieved by a decision of Ombudsman under sub- section (5) of section 8, may, within thirty days of decision, make a representation to the President or Governor, as the case may be, who may pass such order thereon as he may deem fit.
- Powers of the Ombudsman
The Ombudsman shall for the purpose of this Act have the same powers as are vested in a Civil Court under the Code of Civil Procedures, 1908 (Act V of 1908), in respect of the following matters, namely:
- Summoning and enforcing
the attendance of any person and examining him on oath;
- Compelling the production of evidence;
- Receiving evidence on affidavits;
- Issuing commission for the examination of witnesses
- entering any premises for the purpose of making any inspection or investigation, enter any premises where the Ombudsman has a reason to believe that any information relevant to the case may be found; and
- The Ombudsman shall have the same powers as the High Court has to punish any person for its contempt.
(2) Ombudsman shall while making the decision on the complaint may impose any of the
– 9 –
minor or major penalties specified in sub- section (4) of section 4.
- Responsibility of employer.– (1) It shall be the responsibility of the employer to ensure implementation of this Act, including but not limited to incorporate the Code of Conduct for protection against harassment at the workplace as a part of their management policy and to form Inquiry Committee referred to in section 3 and designate a competent authority referred to in section 4.
- The management shall display copies of the Code in English as well as in language understood by the majority of employees at conspicuous place in the organization and the work place within six months of the commencement of this Act.
- On failure of an employer to comply with the provisions of this section any employee of an organization may file a petition before the District Court and on having been found guilty the employer shall be liable to fine which may extend to one hundred thousand rupees but shall not be less than twenty-five thousand rupees.
- Provisions of the Act in addition to and not in derogation of any other law.– The provisions of this Act shall be in addition to and not in derogation of any other law for the time being in force.
- Power to make rules.-The Federal Government may make rules to carryout the purposes of this Act.
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[See sections 2(c) and 11]
CODE OF CONDUCT FOR PROTECTION AGAINST HARASSMENT OF WOMEN AT THE WORKPLACE
Whereas it is expedient to make the Code of Conduct at the Workplace etc to provide protection and safety to women against harassment it is hereby provided as under:
- The Code provides a guideline for behavior of all employees, including management, and the owners of an organization to ensure a work environment free of harassment and intimidation;
- “Harassment” means any unwelcome sexual advance, request for sexual favors or other verbal or written communication or physical conduct of a sexual nature, or sexually demeaning attitudes, causing interference with work performance or creating an intimidating, hostile or offensive work environment, or the attempt to punish the complainant for refusal to comply to such a request or is made a condition for employment;
The above is unacceptable behavior in the organization and at the workplace, including in any interaction or situation that is linked to official work or official activity outside the office.
There are three significant manifestations of harassment in the work environment:
- Abuse of authority
A demand by a person in authority, such as a supervisor, for sexual favors in order for the complainant to keep or obtain certain job benefits, be it a wage increase, a promotion, training opportunity, a transfer or the job itself.
– 11 –
- Creating a hostile environment
Any unwelcome sexual advance, request for sexual favors or other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature, which interferes with an individual’s work performance or creates an intimidating, hostile, abusive or offensive work environment.
The typical “hostile environment” claim, in general, requires finding of a pattern of offensive conduct, however, in cases where the harassment is particularly severe, such as in cases involving physical contact, a single offensive incident will constitute a violation.
The refusal to grant a sexual favor can result in retaliation, which may include limiting the employee’s options for future promotions or training, distorting the evaluation reports, generating gossip against the employee or other ways of limiting access to his/her rights. Such behavior is also a part of the harassment.
- An informal approach to resolve a complaint of harassment may be through mediation between the parties involved and by providing advice and counseling on a strictly confidential basis;
- A complainant or a staff member designated by the complainant for the purpose may report an incident of harassment informally to her supervisor, or a member of the Inquiry Committee, in which case the supervisor or the Committee member may address the issue at her discretion in the spirit of this Code. The request may be made orally or in writing;
– 12 –
- If the case is taken up for investigation at an informal level, a senior manager from the office or the head office will conduct the investigation in a confidential manner. The alleged accused will be approached with the intention of resolving the matter in a confidential manner;
- If the incident or the case reported does constitute harassment of a higher degree and the officer or a member reviewing the case feels that it needs to be pursued formally for a disciplinary action, with the consent of the complainant, the case can be taken as a formal complaint;
- A complainant does not necessarily have to take a complaint of harassment through the informal channel. She can launch a formal complaint at any time;
- The complainant may make formal complaint through her incharge, supervisor, CBA nominee or worker’s representative, as the case may be, or directly to any member of the Inquiry Committee. The Committee member approached is obligated to initiate the process of investigation. The supervisor shall facilitate the process and is obligated not to cover up or obstruct the inquiry;
- Assistance in the inquiry procedure can be sought from any member of the organization who should be contacted to assist in such a case;
- The employer shall do its best to temporarily make adjustments so that the accused and the complainant do not have to interact for official purposes during the investigation period. This would include temporarily changing the office, in case both sit in one office, or taking away any extra charge over and above their contract which may give one party excessive powers over the other’s job conditions. The employer can also decide to send the accused on leave, or suspend the accused in accordance with the applicable procedures for dealing with the cases of misconduct, if required;
– 13 –
- Retaliation from either party should be strictly monitored. During the process of the investigation work, evaluation, daily duties, reporting structure and any parallel inquiries initiated should be strictly monitored to avoid any retaliation from either side;
- The harassment usually occurs between colleagues when they are alone, therefore usually it is difficult to produce evidence. It is strongly recommended that staff should report an offensive behavior immediately to someone they trust, even if they do not wish to make a formal complaint at the time. Although not reporting immediately shall not affect the merits of the case; and
- The Code lays down the minimum standards of behavior regarding protection of women from harassment at workplace etc but will not affect any better arrangement that an organization may have developed nor will it bar the grant of protection that employees working in an institute may secure from their employers through negotiation.
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STATEMENT OF OBJECTS AND REASONS
The objective of this Act is to create a safe working environment for women, which is free of harassment, abuse and intimidation with a view toward fulfillment of their right to work with dignity. It will also enable higher productivity and a better quality of life at work. Harassment is one of the biggest hurdles faced by working women preventing many who want to work to get themselves and their families out of poverty.
This Act will open the path for women to participate more fully in the development of this country at all levels.
This Act builds on the principles of equal opportunity for men and women and their right to earn a livelihood without fear of discrimination as stipulated in the Constitution. This Act complies with the Government’s commitment to high international labour standards and empowerment of women. It also adheres to the Human Rights Declaration, the United Nation’s Convention for Elimination of all forms of Discrimination Against Women and ILO’s convention 100 and 111 on workers’ rights. It adheres to the principles of Islam and all other religions in our country which assure women’s dignity.
This Act requires all public and private organizations to adopt an internal Code of Conduct and a complain/appeals mechanism aimed at establishing a safe working environment, free of intimidation and abuse, for all working women. It shall also establish an Ombudsman at Federal and provincial levels.
Be it an individual, group, institution or a system of knowledge, critical self-evaluation is a necessary condition for its growth and development. Such evaluation is more important in the field of knowledge because only through rigorous evaluation, testing and verification, it gains validity, accuracy and a scientific status. Evaluation of knowledge both at a given point and over time needs an explicit set of criteria. If the criteria are not explicit, or different criteria are used for evaluation of similar phenomena at different times, one cannot achieve comparability of results and identify the changes over time in the phenomena under study.
In countries with advanced social sciences, evaluation is part of academic activities of the practitioners of a discipline. Individual scholars write papers about it and present them in annual conferences of their professional associations. The presidents of associations in their presidential addresses often review the progress of disciplines, analyse problems they face and identify the challenges that they need to meet. These multiple activities set the directions and future agenda for a discipline and act as a self-correcting mechanism for it.
In Pakistan the process of evaluation of social sciences, both at the level of separate disciplines or taken together, has remained underdeveloped. With a few exceptions, the practitioners of different disciplines have not conducted systematic studies of their disciplines. Only a small number of studies on the disciplines of Economics, Sociology and Mass Communication
Social Sciences in Pakistan: A Profile
appeared in mid and late 1990s.1 To some extent, this happened due to the absence of functioning professional associations of individual disciplines. For some disciplines no professional association emerged. The associations that emerged for others remained moribund during most of their existence and (with rare exceptions) did not make any significant contribution towards evaluation and development of their disciplines.
The evaluation of social sciences
as a whole did not even start during the first three decades of the life of the country.
The first time it was done was in early 1980s when the University Grants Commission established the Centre of Social Sciences
and Humanities (COSH) in 1983. COSH constituted a group of social scientists to conduct a study to asses the needs of five
social science disciplines
History, Political Science and
International Relations, Psychology, Sociology/Anthropology/ Social Work and Philosophy.2 The group prepared a report which, though useful in understanding the problems specific to each discipline, did not provide insights into their collective state and identify the causes of their underdevelopment. This was mainly due to the lack of well-articulated theoretical framework and failure to use explicit criteria of evaluation.
The second step to study social sciences as a whole was taken by the Faculty of Social Sciences of Quaid-i-Azam University when in 1986 it got papers prepared on the development of 12 social science disciplines, three of them multidisciplinary. The writers of papers were provided specific guidelines and a theoretical framework. After they were presented and discussed in the first ever conference of social scientists in 1988, S. H. Hashmi, the then Dean of Social Sciences in QAU edited them and published a book with the title The State of Social Sciences in Pakistan.3 In 2002, S. Akbar Zaidi pursued this task further and prepared a comprehensive and thought-provoking monograph, Dismal State of Social Sciences in Pakistan.4
To pursue further the task of evaluation of social sciences, Council of Social Sciences (COSS), which came into existence
in 2000, initiated a research project in 2003. In order to facilitate cumulative growth of knowledge about social sciences in Pakistan, COSS project maintains a certain degree of continuity with Hashmi’s edited volume and Zaidi’s monograph. It incorporates some of the concepts and questions used in them. However, it makes one departure from it. It has extended the number of disciplines for study from 11 in Hashmi edited book to 16 by including five more disciplines. They include Philosophy, Anthropology, Women Studies, and two emerging disciplines, Peace and Conflict Resolution Studies, and Linguistics.5 Besides, a special paper on the contributions of Non Governmental Organisations (NGOs) to social science research was commissioned.6
The focus of this research project is only on social science departments in public universities in the country. It does not include departments in colleges that award postgraduate degrees and the research institutes that do not award such degrees.7
The writers of papers were provided with a set of guidelines for preparing their studies with the request to follow them as far as possible.8 They were also requested to organise their studies around three aspects of their disciplines: quantitative growth, qualitative development and identification of the factors that limited or fostered them.9
Under the general rubric of quantitative and qualitative development, the writers were asked to collect specific information about the number of departments in their disciplines and changes that occurred in their strength over time. Such information was also to be collected about PhD and MPhil theses these departments produced. The theses were to be categorised in accordance with a given set of criteria that was provided by guidelines. The writers were also requested to provide and organise material concerning the syllabi and courses for MA and MPhil degrees. Further, a specific question was asked about the inclusion of a course on research methodology. Furthermore, a number of questions were asked about interdisciplinary
Social Sciences in Pakistan: A Profile
orientation in the discipline; its ideologisation in terms of Westernisation, secularisation, indigenisation and Islamisation; the development of a professional community around a discipline; the existence of a dialogue within disciplines and departments and across them; the number of journals being issued, and quality of publications in the discipline.
The writers of the papers collected some data for their papers directly from heads of the departments of their disciplines. To further facilitate their work in answering some of the above questions, COSS also collected and tabulated some quantitative data and provided it to the writers. Specifically COSS data was about the number of social science departments, the number of teachers in them, and the level and origin of their degrees. In its raw form, this data was taken from seven Handbooks issued by the Inter University Board and the University Grants Commission at different times.10 COSS also provided data to the writers about the number of PhD and MPhil theses produced by social science departments from 1948 to 2001, which was taken from a UGC publication.11 As this publication had information only for the period of 1947 to 1991, COSS collected further data from the heads of social sciences departments and the deans of their faculties and brought it forward to 2001. The data collected by writers and COSS is not always mutually consistent: first for the reason that they have been collected from two different sources and second, because most writers collected their information up to the year 2003 while cut off point for COSS data was the year 2001.
the writers were requested to focus their papers only on the period of 1985-2001. However, as information on some questions became
available from 1948 to 2001 this limitation
was lifted. Some writers extended this period to
in which they collected their information. This created a dilemma for the editors about the title of the book. Finally we decided to name it ‘Social Sciences in Pakistan: A Profile’.
faced several problems while
preparing their studies. First, with the exception of the papers
in Hashmi edited book and 4
Zaidi’s monograph there was no systematic studies on the development of different disciplines on which they could have built on. Most of the writers sent questionnaires to the departments teaching the discipline for getting the information they needed for their papers. On an average only half of them responded. It seems that many departments do not maintain the requested information and some heads of the departments who had such information were reluctant to share it.12 Some writers were able to collect a great deal of information about their disciplines with relative ease because of their higher status in departmental hierarchy. Others had to struggle to get information of some reasonable amount.
The papers included in this project represent a wide range of interests, priorities and emphases. As mentioned above, although all writers of papers were provided with a uniform set of guidelines to carry out the research, and provided with data on certain aspects of their studies, a significant variation has occurred resulted in the kind, level, quality, depth and emphasis that the papers represent. Some of the papers are detailed, thorough and examine the discipline with great depth. Others are general overviews of the discipline. This makes comparative analysis somewhat difficult, but the papers still provide some insights into the state of the subject.
The papers in this volume were prepared to serve two objectives: first to provide an in-depth understanding of a particular discipline and second to provide material for developing an overall picture of social sciences in the country. The papers related to the first category are included in the present volume. To give the readers a preview of this picture two papers: one by Pervez Tahir ‘Quantitative Development of Social Sciences’ and the other by Rubina Saigol ‘Conclusion’ have been included in this book. For realising the second objective, a comprehensive and in-depth view of overall development of social sciences in Pakistan another volume is under preparation, using material from the papers in this volume as well as information from other sources.
Social Sciences in Pakistan: A Profile
This book presents facts and their scientific interpretation about the state of social sciences in Pakistan. It can produce two different attitudes among the academic community and policy makers. It may depress some and in others it may generate energy and insight to reverse the policies and national priorities that produced these facts. If the book promotes the second attitude, the labour of the writers, editors and financial assistance of donors will be rewarded.
1 These studies have been compiled and edited by S. A. Zaidi with the title, Social Sciences in Pakistan in the 1990s (Council of Social Sciences, Islamabad, 2003).
2 ‘Summary of COSH Study Group Report on Five Disciplines of Social Sciences in General Universities of Pakistan,’ unpublished, n.d., p. 3.
3 S. H. Hashmi (ed.), The State of Social Sciences in Pakistan (Quaid-i-Azam
University, Islamabad, 1989).
4 COSS, Islamabad, 2002.
5 To keep the project manageable, a number of disciplines which fall within the
broad category of social sciences such as Social Work were not included in the list of COSS study.
6 During the last quarter of twentieth century a number of civil society
organisations popularly known as NGOs have emerged in the country. Some of them have made significant direct contributions to social science research, others have produced material that can be used by social scientists in their work. Anwar Shaheen’s paper on ‘Contribution of the NGOs to Social Science Research in Pakistan’ offers detailed analysis of the quantity and quality of their research emphasising the need for collaborative work between the academics and NGO researchers.
7 However, a few writers have included postgraduate colleges and research institutes in their papers.
8 These guidelines were provided to make the studies comparable. Most of the
writers have followed them to varying degrees.
9 Before their finalisation, each paper went through a lengthy process of review by the editors followed by meetings of the writers in Lahore, Karachi and
Islamabad in which the papers were thoroughly examined.
10 Handbook of the Universities of Pakistan 1963 (Inter University Board of
Pakistan, Karachi, 1963), Handbook of the Universities of Pakistan (Inter University Board of Pakistan, Islamabad, 1968), Universities of Pakistan Year Book 1976 (University Grants Commission, Islamabad, 1976), Handbook of Universities of Pakistan 1987 (University Grants Commission, Islamabad, 1987), Handbook of Universities of Pakistan 1994 (University Grants Commission, Islamabad, 1994), Handbook of Universities of Pakistan 1998 (University Grants Commission, Islamabad, 1998), Handbook of Universities of Pakistan 2001 (University Grants Commission, Islamabad, 2001). Instead of full titles subsequent reference to these Handbooks will be as follows; 1963 Handbook and 2001 Handbook. One cannot vouchsafe hundred percent accuracy of information in these Handbooks but can safely assume that for developing averages and percentages, the information in them is adequately correct.
11 National Bibliography of Research Theses Submitted to the Universities of Pakistan (University Grants Commission, Islamabad, 2000).
12 Muhammad Pervez, ‘The State of the Discipline of Psychology in Public Universities in Pakistan: A Review’, in this volume.
Teaching of International Relations in Pakistani Universities
Rasul Bakhsh Rais
Although there is some degree of sameness in the functional aspects of international relations of all states, the modernised nations and Third World countries have vast differences in the content and process of interaction with other states and non-state actors. Factors such as power, capabilities, size, resources, technologies and level of development play important role in shaping goals and mobilising appropriate means for realising them.1 Ideographic differences in values, goals, means, and domestic systems present difficulties in the development of a general theory of International Relations that would be capable of explaining behaviour of all type of states. We are far away from this destination, and some would even question if we need to pursue the goal of building such a theory.2 Failures to build a unified theory have not deterred us from launching fresh efforts. Impressed by the intellectual advancement of other social sciences, the specialists in our field by applying diverse approaches and methodologies have turned the discipline from dry, empty to fulsome and elegant. This can be gauged from the rich literature that has emerged as a result of efforts to construct theories.3 There is a new effort to theorise in the light of post- Cold War developments by revisiting some of the theoretical constructs that we developed during the Cold War decades. That is part of our learning, relearning, correcting and thus moving
Social Sciences in Pakistan: A Profile
forward by constantly re-examining our theories and their explanatory power.
The ideas, debates and scholarly discourses that normative, realist, neo-realist, positivist, neo-Marxist, political economy and world society paradigms have greatly enriched the field of International Relations.4 However most of the theoretical developments in the field have taken place in the American universities that have a strong tradition of intellectual rigour, free debate and competitive academic environment.5 English and European universities have equally strong tradition in diplomatic history and their focus on Area Studies has produced excellent works in the field.6 The insights, conceptual frameworks, models, methodologies and approaches that have emerged as a result of research and writings in the field have fast travelled to our parts of the world. Those of us who had training in the American and European universities have brought back all the debates of the field to the classrooms and seminars.
Mechanism of Transfer of Western Thought
The Western influence on our thoughts and academic practices is not confined to our years of education in American and European universities. It has continued to dominate our writings and teaching in the field in three different ways. First are the fellowship programmes and academic priorities of the award granting foundations, universities and think-tanks. They invite applications within specific areas of political, security, economic and social concerns. By pre-determining the academic agenda of the researchers from our part of the world, they fundamentally influence the production of knowledge in our field according to their own policy concerns. This influence is not confined to the Third World countries alone, the scholars in the Western countries have also to conform to the fellowship agenda if they hope to win a fellowship grant. It is more confining in the case of Third World scholars because of lack of adequate grant facilities in the home countries. The Western scholars have greater ability to secure funding for their projects from the universities and a great variety of other sources. However, it would be unfair to say
Teaching of International Relations in Pakistani Universities
that any grant or fellowship imposes any restriction on academic freedom or intellectual independence of any researcher or scholar. The list of areas of general preference is also adequately broad and gives considerable choice. The only confining element is the list itself.
The second source of continuing influence is the American and British textbooks. Since the field of International Relations has mostly developed in these countries, the quality of works, the scope and depth of scholarship is remarkably high, which no teacher or writer in the developing world can ignore. The American and British Scholars have continued to add to and refine the theories, concepts and analytical frameworks. They have stayed far ahead of us in their intellectual lead, which rather gives us an opportunity to bring fresh insights to our classrooms by using the most recent of their works. This is also reflected in the contents of the professional journals, where most of the scholarly debates have been taking place.7 It is only in the professional journals in the field that some of us have been able to make contributions, and that has added to the variety and enrichment of the field. Although some of the works produced by the South Asian scholars including Pakistanis are being used in the course outlines in the American and European universities, the course contents here and there are largely dominated by the works of Western scholars.
The culture of seminars and conferences is a third important means of promoting new ideas, introducing fresh works for debates and discussion and encouraging research in new areas. Most of the conferences have specific themes and narrow focus depending on the major academic interests of the grant awarding institutions. It is only the professional conferences like the annual conference of the Associations of International Studies that offer an open, free and quite stimulating environment and opportunity for the growth of scholarship. In this important area, our representation has been very marginal, owing to lack of funding from the home country sources. In Pakistan, despite qualitative growth of teaching of International Relations, none of
Social Sciences in Pakistan: A Profile
us has succeeded in convening even a first International Relations conference to explore the various sub-fields and the contemporary debates. We will return to this theme little later.
The question of relevance of the material content, debates, and global issues that we teach as International Relations in Pakistani universities is fundamental one. This is because the countries around us and within the extended region have very specific and unique characteristics in the circumstances of their birth and development. Their geopolitical conditions and the foreign and security policy agendas are equally distinctive. While fundamental concepts that have defined theorising in International Relations may have a degree of universality, the specificity of each state and its regional environment and problems would require an extended and varied theoretical outlook. That in case of Pakistan and many other states is missing.
The central argument of this essay is that conceptualisation of International Relations rooted in the Western experience of statehood and international system may be regarded as incomplete without reflections on the realities of the Third World. With the dominance of Anglo-American perspective, the field of International Relations has essentially remained ethnocentric.8 Even juxtaposition of Third World into a single analytical unit would encounter serious difficulties in establishing common patterns of actions because of the variations in development, political processes, and nature of external linkages. By arguing that all states are functionally similar and their structural and behavioural characteristics produce the same system of ‘ordered anarchy’, the various theories of International Relations have partially addressed this dilemma.9 Since all states operate in conditions, understood differently ranging from anarchy to complex interdependence, the uniqueness of each nation does not matter, as the functional elements of their operational environment are the same. Pursuit of national interest and legal notions of sovereign equality are
Teaching of International Relations in Pakistani Universities
common values that have provided intellectual tools to discover the global patterns. There are some critics who argue that the International Relations theory is hegemonic in terms of its focus on nation state and its central concerns with sovereignty and national security.10
This brief paper attempts to examine various aspects of the discipline of International Relations in Pakistani universities, its quantitative and qualitative growth during the past fifteen years, the quality of research and teaching and where it stands today as compared to other social science disciplines. As discussed above our basic contention is that the Pakistani experts in the field like their counterparts in South Asia have heavily borrowed from the Western social sciences.11 The field of International Relations is no exception. The analytical models and themes developed by Western scholars continue to influence our teaching and research interests. This is also reflected in the designing of our courses and selection of reading materials and choosing themes for publications.
State of Indigenous Scholarship
Although the discipline of International Relations has witnessed remarkable growth in the opening up of new departments at different universities during the past three decades, the Pakistani scholars have not produced a single work in the core areas that could be used as a textbook. Almost two generations of university teachers have failed to give the Pakistani students basic introductory texts in those sub-fields of the discipline that are generally considered as compulsory for the completion of the programme. Compared to American universities, one notices an unusually long list of compulsory courses in the departments of International Relations here. These include, Introduction to International Relations (goes under a variety of titles), International Law, Strategic Studies, International Relations Since 1945, Political Economy, Theories of Comparative Politics, Politics of Pakistan (both are Political Science stuff), Foreign Policy and Research Methodology.
Social Sciences in Pakistan: A Profile
A scant look on the contemporary research interests of the academic and non-academic writers would reveal that security issues relating to Afghanistan, Pakistan and South Asia have dominated their research agenda more than any other subject. This interest is shown in the great number of books and research articles that have appeared in Pakistani and foreign journals. The works of Institute of Strategic Studies and Regional Studies, and Islamabad Policy Research Institute also focus largely on regional security issues. Their journals, seminars and conferences have security related content and discussion, but also cover a great deal in the area of foreign relations and wide range of contemporary themes of world. These three institutes along with the Pakistan Institute of International Affairs, the oldest in the country have provided excellent forum to Pakistani and foreign policy makers and scholars to debate world affairs and publish their researches.
Some teachers in the various departments of International Relations have done pretty well in getting their articles published in scholarly journals abroad, in Australia, Britain and the United States. Some of them have got books published by foreign presses. Actually, the culture of publishing in various fields of social sciences developed only in late seventies and 1980s. Very few teachers of International Relations and Political Science published during the first three decades. History was an exception. Getting published in recognised foreign journals was result of competitive academic environment that developed in 1980s, particularly at Quaid-i-Azam University. Newly trained faculty members in British and American universities brought back the tradition of research and writing believing that national and international professional recognition could only be possible through quality writing and research. A small group of such scholars has established a good tradition of publishing in the field of International Relations.12 The quality of much of their writing is comparable to international standards with usual variations that would be natural even among community of scholars in American and British universities. In the coming years, this trend is likely to grow, as better students are coming
Teaching of International Relations in Pakistani Universities
out of the departments of International Relations that are being absorbed by various policy-oriented both private and semi- autonomous think-tanks.
The Study and Teaching of International Relations
The study and teaching of International Relations has seen rapid expansion and popularity in Pakistani universities. Karachi University was the first to open the Department of International Relations in the 1958.13 At that time Karachi being the capital city attracted a good number of writers and professional diplomats who in some way had been either involved in conducting diplomacy or had scholarly interest in the field. In the early years of Independence they established Pakistan Institute of International Affairs, which continues to be one of the prominent think-tanks in Pakistan. The Institute has seen many ups and downs during the past fifty-six years, but has survived and has done pretty well in promoting study of International Relations and Foreign Policy.
The founding fathers of the Institute of International Affairs were deeply committed persons and with great quality of intellectual leadership. Among them, Khawja Sarwar Hassan played a vital role in launching various programmes of the Institute. Khawja Hassan in our view is the real pioneer of research and writings in the discipline of International Relations. He started with policy-oriented research, collection of documents and their publications. At his Institute, he organised seminars and lectures where the top policy makers of the new nation delivered their talks. The most enduring contribution of the Institute has been the regular publication of its journal, the Pakistan Horizon, which is the pioneer in the field of International Relations in Pakistan. Comparing it to what it was in the early years, its quality has regrettably declined.
Besides Karachi University, five other universities in Pakistan have departments of International Relations. Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad introduced this discipline in 1972 with very limited faculty sources. In order to cater to the rising
Social Sciences in Pakistan: A Profile
demand of the students in this new area in the social science faculties, later on, the Sindh University, Jamshoro, University of Balochistan, Quetta and Shah Abdul Latif University, Khairpur, and University of Peshawar also opened departments of International Relations. These universities are located in different regions of the country and enrol students from the local communities. In terms of numbers the departments have proliferated. In addition to International Relations departments, departments of Defence and Strategic Studies, at Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Fatima Jinnah Women University, Rawalpindi and Punjab University, Lahore have introduced degree programmes in Defence and Diplomacy.
Departments of Political Science almost in every university offer courses in International Relations. Some of these departments offer specialisation in International Relations besides offering one or two introductory courses. This would require students to take about three to four courses or in lieu of two courses and write an MA dissertation on a topic relating to International Relations. Teaching of International Relations in the departments of Political Science is an old academic tradition. Many of the old teachers and scholars in the field of Political Science consider International Relations as its sub-field. Likewise, most of the American and British universities continue to place International Relations under the departments of Government, Politics or Political Science, as they go by different nomenclature. It has never raised any eyebrows among the old teachers of Political Science over the opening up of so many departments of International Relations, often next to their parent departments. Rather, there is a wider recognition in Pakistan that International Relations is a distinctive discipline, which has the quality of absorbing concepts, theories and intellectual substance from so many diverse disciplines of social sciences.
During the past two decades, the subject of International Relations has emerged as a very popular field among students. The Department of International Relations, Quaid-i-Azam University receives more than 200 applications and it admits
Teaching of International Relations in Pakistani Universities
only 50 on annual basis. Recently, it has started granting admission twice a year. Fifty is roughly the number that the International Relations departments in other universities can accommodate annually, but annual intake drastically varies from one university to another. There are three reasons for the popularity of International Relations among both young men and women. First, many of the students who enter social science departments want to pursue careers in government bureaucracy through competitive examinations. A general perception among students is that study of International Relations gives them greater depth and exposure and covers greater variety of subjects than the traditional subjects (for instance History, Political Science), which they think they can prepare through independent reading. There is no data to compare but general view is that candidates who have degree in International Relations have done comparatively better in these examinations than students from other social sciences. Second, because of the problems that Pakistan and many other Islamic countries face, the war in Afghanistan, first Soviet and now American intervention there, Palestine and Kashmir issues and general sense of powerlessness among Muslims invokes considerable interest in world affairs among Pakistanis. The young generation entering the university system of Pakistan carry that social interest to their choice of academic disciplines. Thirdly, young students have a tendency to study something new when they enter the university system. The colleges affiliated with various universities don’t offer International Relations at BA level except Sindh University Jamshoro and Shah Abdul Latif University, Khairpur on limited basis. Also, the relative decline of traditional disciplines, like History and Political Science has pushed relatively better students toward International Relations. Almost all universities are successfully running MA programmes in International Relations, although the quality and focus of their programmes varies. We will address this issue little later. All of them however, have failed to develop PhD programmes. Almost all the International Relations departments of the Pakistani universities have approved MPhil and PhD programmes on the academic calendars. But not all of them have been pursuing
Social Sciences in Pakistan: A Profile
these degree programmes with similar consistency, rigour or regularity.
Table 1: PhD and MPhil Theses Produced in Seven International Relations Departments by the Year 2002
|University of Karachi, Karachi||8||2|
|Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad||Nil||51|
|Sindh University, Jamshoro||3||1|
|Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan||Nil||Nil|
|Shah Abdul Latif University, Khairpur||Nil||1|
|University of Peshawar, Peshawar||n/a||n/a|
|Balochistan University, Quetta||Nil||2|
Source: National Bibliography of Research Theses submitted to the Universities of Pakistan (MPhil and PhD equivalent levels) University Grants Commission, Islamabad, 2002, pp. 226-36; Information individually supplied by departments of International Relations to the Council of Social Sciences.14
We would like to analyse the data though limited in the above table by raising two questions: first, why these departments have failed to develop PhD programmes? Second, what are the topics and trends that theses written so far reflect? Taking the first question first, there are many reasons for failure in developing PhD programme. The most important one is lack of interest in academic profession among the bright students who prefer to take competitive examination, or since the early nineties have been seeking placement in non-governmental organisations that have much higher scale than the universities can offer them. At the time of this writing, almost all the departments of International Relations lack a core faculty of highly trained scholars that could provide the nucleus for developing and promoting higher education leading to the PhD degree. At best, the departments, at a given point of time, have had the services of two to three such scholars who could devote themselves to guiding PhD students. But unfortunately, many of them pressed by economic hardships have little time and energy to devote themselves fully or take greater responsibility of supervising theses. With new economic incentives (Supervisor of PhD thesis would get Rs. 40,000 a piece) we may see greater interest in PhD research. But without a transparent system of accountability that
Teaching of International Relations in Pakistani Universities
the public universities in Pakistan lack, unscrupulous teachers, (we have good share of them among us) may start just fixing signatures on substandard, poor quality or even plagiarised dissertations. Some teachers privately confide that this has already started happening.15 Are we going to have a new glut of paper-degree holders in International Relations and other disciplines of social sciences? I am afraid, yes, if the research is not made a genuinely meaningful exercise, and the economic incentive is misused to get some one cross the line for the buck.
One of the most regretful aspects of development of the discipline of International Relations is that the hiring policies in the departments of International Relations do not match the popularity of the discipline among young students. Overwhelming majority of the teachers that is about 62 in six universities are without PhD degrees. There are only 12 teachers in all the universities mentioned above who have PhD degrees, and only seven of them have the benefit of education in American and British universities. The problem is that highly trained teachers in this discipline are not available in the country for various reasons. Some of the salient reasons are poor salary, unfriendly academic environment, pettiness generally associated with the academic profession and lack of opportunities for higher education in social sciences. Those with higher degrees in the discipline are more attracted to job in the foreign universities than to work in low paid positions in Pakistan. There is good number of Pakistani scholars who are teaching abroad in the departments of Political Science, Public Administration and International Studies, but they would not like to work in Pakistan for the above reasons. Even some of those who have preferred to come back for family or other reasons have gone to work with the NGOs. In recent years, lots of private universities have emerged that are offering far better pay structures to PhD degree holders than the public universities. I am afraid the public universities in Pakistan are not going to retain the foreign trained teachers for too long. The lure of bigger salary elsewhere is just too great to stay glued to the old, and in many ways, decaying institutions.16 A new cadre of trained teachers could be created
Social Sciences in Pakistan: A Profile
through foreign scholarship programme for in-service teachers. But with our bias in favour of natural sciences, training of teachers in International Relations or in other social sciences has not received attention of the Ministry of Education, University Grants Commission, now renamed as Higher Education Commission, or by the universities themselves.
The second question relates to the themes of PhD and MPhil dissertations in the departments of International Relations. Although it is very difficult to draw strictly sub-disciplinary boundaries among a great variety of topics, we draw somewhat arbitrarily the following categories: Dealing with theoretical issues, Pakistani state and society, other countries and those doing some type of comparison.
Table 2: Theme of PhD and MPhil Theses Submitted in Seven Departments of International Relations by the Year 2002
|Category||Theoretical||Pakistan state and society/ Bilateral relations||Relations and problems of other Countries||Comparative|
Source: National Bibliography of Research Theses submitted to the Universities of Pakistan (MPhil and PhD equivalent levels) (University Grants Commission, Islamabad, 2002), pp. 226-36; Information individually supplied by departments of International Relations to the Council of Social Sciences.
Among the dissertations listed in our data, theoretical and comparative studies haven’t attracted the attention of researchers. There are only two dissertations written at any department of International Relations towards completion of MPhil that roughly fall into the category of theoretical work. One is on Islamic theory of International Relations by Mujeeb Afzal and the second is by Asad Hayauddin on decision-making theory and Pakistan’s Afghan policy. It is more of an application of an existing theory than new theoretical speculation. Afzal’s work however for the first time brings into light some Islamic theoretical strands in the field trying to explain international
Teaching of International Relations in Pakistani Universities
politics. Rest of the theses are generally about Pakistan’s relations with other countries, on regional cooperation organisations, bilateral disputes or about problems and foreign polices of either major powers or Muslim states in Central Asia and the Middle East. Three topics seem to have been consistent focus of researchers, Afghanistan, nuclear proliferation in South Asia and Pakistan’s relations with the United States. Besides these being repeated one finds a rich variety of subjects on which dissertations have been written. A great majority of these however directly or indirectly relate to Pakistan and its neighbourhood in South Asia, Central Asia and the Middle East. This brief survey is about the nature of topics and in no way we comment on the quality of the research produced. It would be unfair to pronounce any judgement until one has read all of them in entirety. In our view some research is better than no research at all. In our universities, there is a strong trend toward research, its standards do vary from place to place and from one researcher to another, which is equally true of other countries and universities. During the period under investigation 1987-2002, one sees remarkable quantitative growth of research dissertations compared to other periods in Pakistan’s academic history. Why is it so? Two more years in the university for doing MPhil gives students appearing in the competitive examination an edge over those who quit after an MA degree. Secondly, it places them in better position both for teaching and research jobs in the country. Thirdly, MPhil degree prepares students better to pursue higher studies in foreign universities. This is not the only reason but one of the main considerations for students opting for MPhil in International Relations in any other social science discipline. Finally, ‘economic, social and cultural globalisation has exponentially increased the salience and relevance of International Relations.’17 Many of International Relations graduates are getting placement in the growing NGO sector, media and development consultancy.
For entering the PhD programme, the motivations are different. No university teacher can get promoted to the rank of an Associate Professor without a PhD degree in his or her
Social Sciences in Pakistan: A Profile
respective field. This has some marginal influence over the teachers. Many of them are enrolled in PhD programmes though few have been able to complete their work. The new trend is toward obtaining the degree, as it would make the teacher look more dignified and accepted by the academic establishment. Others who are entering afresh want to pursue academic careers in teaching and research, as the degree would give them a competitive edge over those who don’t have it.
Largely owing to the shortage of trained teachers, teaching of International Relations has remained inadequate and backward with few exceptions where the teachers had significant exposure to foreign academia. The discipline of International Relations, as indicated in the beginning of this essay, has undergone profound intellectual transformation the world over. Unfortunately, majority of the teachers in Pakistan are not familiar with the classical debates, fresh approaches, methodologies and contemporary controversies of the field. A teacher or a student of International Relations may not be able to comprehend the subject fully without exposure to the classical literature and the fascinating debates that have been going on for the past five decades. With poor academic background a teacher in the field may not fully introduce the discipline to a student and initiate him to independent learning. Most of the students entering the university and taking courses in the International Relations have no background of this discipline and have no ability to challenge the knowledge and understanding of the half-baked and ill- prepared teacher on the other side of the rostrum.
A review of the curricula run by the International Relations departments in our universities suggests that they meet just the basic requirements. But the titles of courses with short descriptions are hollow shells; the substance is always provided by the teacher. Theoretically, he has the responsibility to select the most recent readings and assign them to students. A cursory look at the reading list for various courses, particularly departments running on annual system, would indicate that the
Teaching of International Relations in Pakistani Universities
books and authors have long lost their relevance. Some of the authors of old textbooks died long ago and their books are no longer in use or in print anymore in the Western world. Frankly speaking, they don’t have any relevance to what is the real stuff of International Relations today. The photocopy machine and the old-fashioned teachers have kept the redundant works and their authors alive. The case of classical works is different, as their utility as a starting point and in relating to the progress in the field is immense, but this kind of stuff rarely captures the imagination of our teachers.
It should be institutional responsibility of the International Relations departments and the university to provide recent publications to the faculty members and have the references and main libraries well stocked. They have utterly failed in this because of the budgetary constraints. On their own, the faculty members have little means to spare to build up their personal collections with the meagre salaries that they have to live with. Therefore, many of the teachers end up having limited or no access to recent publications in their respective fields of teaching. This reflects back in the classroom. Our failure to catch up with the most recent works keeps our students below the acceptable level of understanding of the subject matter.
Another problem is that availability of a teacher in a particular field has largely determined the selection of both the subject matter as well as the choice of courses that a department would offer for study. The basic requirements of the degree or well- rounded intellectual development of the students is generally left out of the scheme of things. Students in many departments have little option but to study only those courses that the department can offer or teachers find themselves confident to teach. In most of the cases, it is stale, old stuff that teachers have been offering to students year after year without any change in the content or the reading list. In theory, the option to select courses is there, but practically, since the number of faculty members is very small, students are left out of any choice. This deficiency could be compensated if students were allowed to take some of the
Social Sciences in Pakistan: A Profile
courses in other departments of the social science faculty. In many cases, students can at the most be permitted to take one or two courses outside their own departments. Allowing students to undertake courses in the departments of History, Economics, Sociology, Anthropology and Political Science would help the students acquire a broad-based understanding of the forces that shape international politics. Unfortunately, our faculties have drawn very narrow intellectual boundaries around themselves. Given the fact, cross-fertilisation with other social science disciplines virtually does not exist.
International Relations programmes in Pakistani universities are primarily generalist in orientation. Most of the departments have taken an Area Study approach to organise their teaching programmes with little attention to the main fields of the discipline. Some of the departments have specified areas of specialisation, such as, International Relations, Strategic Studies, International Law and Organisation, South Asia, Middle East and Comparative Politics. But students have very little or no specialisation in real terms. They are rather exposed quite cursorily to the various sub-fields. Given the fact that students entering the Master programme in most of the International Relations departments have no exposure to even basics of the field, generalist approach may be the most appropriate. But this approach is not carried through the entire programme. The distribution of courses in various areas and the core interests of the field are very lopsided. It is again the problem of limited faculty and their narrow focus that don’t allow the students to explore different sub-fields adequately.
Related to the above problems is the question of rationalising the classification of the subjects as optional and compulsory. In some cases, the list of compulsory is short, while in others the number is too excessive that leaves students very little choice of subjects. In some departments of International Relations as many as nine to eleven courses are listed as compulsory, which is roughly fifty percent of the courses required to complete the degree requirements.
Teaching of International Relations in Pakistani Universities
There are three major challenges that the teaching and research in the field of International Relations in Pakistan faces. The first one is lack of theoretical orientation of the courses. Even the core courses are empty in terms of modern theoretical controversies. In some departments either theory is entirely non- existent or extremely week. This gives most of the departments an orientation of diplomatic history or foreign policy. Why it is so? This brings us back to the poor academic training of most of the faculty members. Most of them were never exposed to various theoretical strands that have dominated our field. Our contention is that without understanding various theoretical strands and introducing them to students, the real substance of International Relations may stay out of our discourses.
The second important challenge, and if you may, critique of the teaching of International Relations is its weak multidisciplinary character. The discipline started out by borrowing heavily from other disciplines and has demonstrated its capacity to absorb their concepts, approaches and theories. In the Western academia, it is not only the social science but also the natural sciences that have greatly added to the teaching and study of International Relations. The new fields, like Environmental Security relies heavily on Chemistry and Biology along with social sciences. Likewise, the nuclear proliferation, missile regimes, the space based defence system also require some understanding of the basic sciences. This cross-fertilisation has not occurred in Pakistan. Even the core disciplines like Economics find very little space on the course list of the International Relations departments.
The third important challenge is the lack of nexus between the policy makers and the Pakistani acade8mia. The foreign policy establishment operates from within its own shell. It is less open to the researchers than anywhere in the world. Its archives are inaccessible. Repeated efforts to get the thirty years old files open to public have failed. The government of Pakistan has yet
Social Sciences in Pakistan: A Profile
to enact any enabling legislation in this respect. Nor is there any strong tradition of consulting the academics and researchers on important foreign policy matters. The very purpose of establishing Area Study Centres at six universities that cover all the regions of the world and funding of Institute of Regional Studies, Institute of Strategic Studies, and Islamabad Policy Research Institute was to support the foreign policy making process in Pakistan. Interaction between the foreign policy bureaucracy and the academia is better today than it was a decade ago but we still institutional linkages between the two are as weak as the tradition of consulting the expert by the bureaucrats.
The number of semi-autonomous institutes and centres has proliferated during the past two decades. The non-government organisations like the Islamabad Council of World Affairs (ICWA), Foundation for Research on International Environment National Development & Security (FRIENDS), Sustainable Development Policy Institute (SDPI) are also making valuable contribution in introducing new debates and alternative discourse on foreign and security policy issues. There is lot of interaction mostly through seminars and conferences between the faculty of the departments, institutes, and NGOs. Although the quality of debate and research interests of many of these institutions varies greatly, they have definitely added to resilience of intellectual culture in Pakistan. They are also emerging as important part of the fledgling civil society of Pakistan. The Foreign Office or governments in future may not be able to ignore their voice on foreign policy issues.
There are some additional concerns that we have to take into account. In our view, the shortage of trained faculty is the main challenge that the departments of International Relations face today. Those few with higher qualifications are drawing close to retirement. There is no sign or initiative that they would be replaced by equally qualified ones. If it is not done in the immediate future, not only will the quality of teaching decline
Teaching of International Relations in Pakistani Universities
but also the culture of research and inquiry suffers a grave setback.
The most recent books in the field and journals that carry the debates about International Relations are not available at all the departments and universities. The spread of Internet may be supplementing some of the deficiency, but it is not a good substitute for well-funded and well-stocked library resources.
In the coming decades, the market forces will largely determine the relevance of various disciplines. The old-fashioned approach to the study and content of International Relations may further diminish the job prospects for the students of discipline if the changes in the job market are not kept in mind. We need to retool ourselves and make the discipline marketable in the changing environments of our economy. Focus on international development, study of media, civil society and marginalised communities may bring us out of the traditional state-centric mould and introduce new thinking and approaches to the study of International Relations.
Recommendations and Conclusion
Given the problems in teaching and research in International Relations discussed above one may make a number of recommendations.
- International Relations department at the Quaid-i-Azam University be expanded and upgraded into a centre of excellence on the pattern of School of International Studies at Jawaharlal Nehru University. In order to retain the current faculty and attract qualified teachers, more positions at Associate and Professor level be created. The problem of shortage of qualified teachers in the field is so acute that even losing two foreign- trained faculty members would deal a deathblow to the relatively strong academic character of the department at this premier public university.
- A pool of qualified teachers can neither work nor train young scholars without a good library. Each department of International
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